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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AVSCOM-TM-86-A-2 , NASA-TM-88343 , NAS 1.15:88343 , A-86207
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A semiempirical model to predict the unsteady loads on an airfoil that is experiencing dynamic stall, is investigated. The mathematical model is described from an engineering point of view, demonstrates the procedure for obtaining various empirical parameters, and compares the loads predicted by the model with those obtained in the experiment. It is found that the procedure is straightforward, and the final calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Comparisons between calculations and measurements also indicate that a decrease in accuracy results when the values of both the reduced frequency and the amplitude of oscillation are large. Potential quantitative improvements in the accuracy of the calculations are discussed for accounting of both the hysteresis in the static data and the effects of stall delay in the governing equations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-9824 , NAS 1.60:2399 , AVSCOM-TR-84-A-3 , AD-A159502 , NASA-TP-2399
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recently reported phenomenon of asymmetric flow separation from a circular cylinder in the critical Reynolds number regime has been confirmed in a water-tunnel experiment. For the first time, an attempt was made to visualize the wake of the cylinder during the transition from subcritical to critical flow and to correlate the visualizations with lift and drag measurements. The occurrence of a dominant asymmetric-flow state was quite repeatable, both when increasing and decreasing the Reynolds number, resulting in a mean lift coefficient of C sub L approx 1.2 and a shift in the angle of the wake by about 12 deg. A distinctive step change in the drag and shedding frequency was also found to occur. A hysteresis was confirmed to exist in this region as the Reynolds number was cycled over the transition range. Both boundaries of the asymmetry appear to be supercritical bifurcations in the flow. The asymmetry was normally steady in the mean; however, there were instances when the direction of the asymmetry reversed and remained so for the duration of the Reynolds number sweep through this transition region. A second asymmetry was observed at a higher Reynolds number; however, the mean lift coefficient was much lower, and the direction of the asymmetry was not observed to reverse. Introducing a small local disturbance into the boundary layer was found to prevent the critical asymmetry from developing along the entire span of the cylinder.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85879 , AVSCOM-TM-84-A-1 , A-9606 , NASA-TM-85879
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The tip of a finite-span airfoil was used to generate a streamwise vortical flow, the strength of which could be varied by changing the incidence of the airfoil. The vortex that was generated traveled downstream and interacted with a second airfoil on which measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moment were made. The flow field, including the vortex core, was visualized in order to study the structural alterations to the vortex resulting from various levels of encounter with the downstream airfoil. These observations were also used to evaluate the accuracy of a theoretical model.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-2273 , NAS 1.60:2273 , AVSCOM-TR-83-A-17 , E-1585
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experimentally derived force and moment data are presented for eight airfoil sections that were tested at fixed and varying incidence in a subsonic two dimensional stream. Airfoil incidence was varied through sinusoidal oscillations in pitch over a wide range of amplitude and frequency. The surface pressure distribution, as well as the lift, drag, and pitching moment derived therefrom, are displayed in a uniform fashion to delineate the static and dynamic characteristics of each airfoil both in and out of stall.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-8925 , NAS 1.15:84245-VOL-2 , USAAVRADCOM-TR-82-A-8-VOL-2 , NASA-TM-84245-VOL-2
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil undergoing large oscillations in pitch was experimentally studied at a Reynolds number of and over a range of frequencies and amplitudes. Hot-wire probes and surface-pressure transducers were used to clarify the role of the laminar separation bubble, to delineate the growth and shedding of the stall vortex, and to quantify the resultant aerodynamic loads. In addition to the pressure distributions and normal force and pitching moment data that have often been obtained in previous investigations, estimates of the unsteady drag force during dynamic stall have been derived from the surface pressure measurements. Special characteristics of the pressure response, which are symptomatic of the occurrence and relative severity of moment stall, have also been examined.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1100 , A-7096
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of dynamic stall on airfoils oscillating in pitch were investigated by experimentally determining the viscous and inviscid characteristics of the airflow on the NACA 0012 airfoil and on several leading-edge modifications. The test parameters included a wide range of frequencies, Reynolds numbers, and amplitudes-of-oscillation. Three distinct types of separation development were observed within the boundary layer, each leading to classical dynamic stall. The NACA 0012 airfoil is shown to stall by the mechanism of abrupt turbulent leading-edge separation. A detailed step-by-step analysis of the events leading to dynamic stall, and of the results of the stall process, is presented for each of these three types of stall. Techniques for flow analysis in the dynamic stall environment are discussed. A method is presented that reduces most of the oscillating airfoil normal force and pitching-moment data to a single curve, independent of frequency or Reynolds number.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-8382 , A-6674
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental study was devised to determine the profile drag on a subsonic wind tunnel model partially covered with various compliant surface materials. The model consisted of a large section of constant thickness bounded fore and aft by symmetric airfoil fairings. A flat rigid plate, the control surface, could be exchanged for four contiguous complaint panels. The flexible media generally consisted of thin polyvinylchloride membranes stretched to various tensions over trapped fluid cavities of air, water, or polyethelene oxide solution, or over dry or flooded open-celled polyurethane foams. On the basis of very accurate direct-force cell measurements, all configurations were found to yield profile drags equal to or slightly higher than that obtained for the conventional rigid surface case. The results indicate that the potential for practical drag-reducing applications will be limited to either high-density or high-speed flows where more sensible pressure perturbations occur.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3119 , A-5596
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A NACA 0015 semispan wing was placed in a low-speed wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. Pressure data were obtained for both 2-D and 3-D configurations. These data feature a detailed comparison between wing tips with square and round lateral edges. A two-component laser velocimeter was used to measure velocity profiles across the vortex at numerous stations behind the wing and for various combinations of conditions. These conditions include three aspect ratios, three chord lengths, a square- and a round lateral-tip, presence or absence of a boundary-layer trip, and three image plane positions located opposite the wing tip. Both pressure and velocity measurements were made for the angles of attack 4 deg less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 12 deg and for Reynolds numbers 1 x 10(exp 6) less than or equal to Re less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 6).
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.60:3151 , AD-A257045 , A-91056 , NASA-TP-3151 , AVSCOM-TR-91-A-003
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Flow visualization experiments were performed in a water tunnel on a modified NACA 0012 airfoil undergoing large amplitude harmonic oscillations in pitch. Hydrogen bubbles were used to: (1) create a conveniently striated and well preserved set of inviscid flow markers; and (2) to expose the succession of events occurring within the viscous domain during the onset of dynamic stall. Unsteady effects were shown to have an important influence on the progression of flow reversal along the airfoil surface prior to stall. A region of reversed flow underlying a free shear layer was found to momentarily exist over the entire upper surface without any appreciable disturbance of the viscous-inviscid boundary. A flow protuberance was observed to develop near the leading edge, while minor vortices evolve from an expanding instability of the free shear layer over the rear portion of the airfoil. The complete breakdown of this shear layer culminates in the successive formation of two dominant vortices.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-78446 , A-7232
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