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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: transcription factor ; nuclear matrix ; YY1 ; amino acids ; functional regulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The multifunctional transcription factor YY1 is associated with the nuclear matrix. In osteoblasts, the interaction of several nuclear matrix-associated transcription factors with the bone specific osteocalcin gene contributes to tissue-specific and steroid hormone-mediated transcription. A canonical nuclear matrix targeting signal (NMTS) is present in all members of the AML/CBFβ transcription factor family, but not in other transcription factors. Therefore, we defined sequences that direct YY1 (414 amino acids) to the nuclear matrix. A series of epitope tagged deletion constructs were expressed in HeLa S3 and in human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. Subcellular distribution was determined in whole cells and nuclear matrices in situ by immunofluorescence. We demonstrated that amino acids 257-341 in the C-terminal domain of YY1 are necessary for nuclear matrix association. We also observed that sequences within the N-terminal domain of YY1 permit weak nuclear matrix binding. Our data further suggest that the Gal4 epitope tag contains sequences that affect subcellular localization, but not targeting to the nuclear matrix. The targeted association of YY1 with the nuclear matrix provides an additional level of functional regulation for this transcription factor that can exhibit positive and negative control. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:500-510, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: gene expression ; AML/CBF transcription factors ; nuclear matrix ; cancer ; nuclear domains ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Functional interrelationships between components of nuclear architecture and control of gene expression are becoming increasingly evident. In this article we focus on the concept that association of genes and cognate transcription factors with the nuclear matrix may support the formation and/or activities of nuclear domains that facilitate transcriptional regulation. Several lines of evidence are consistent with the concept that association of transcription factors with the nuclear matrix may be obligatory for fidelity of gene expression and maximal transcriptional activity. The identification of specific regions of transcription factors that are responsible for intranuclear trafficking to nuclear matrix-associated sites that support transcription, reinforces the linkage of nuclear structure to regulation of genes. CBFA2/AML-1 and CBFA1/AML-3 provide paradigms for directing gene regulatory factors to RNA polymerase II containing foci within the nucleus. The implications of modifications in the intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors for developmental and tissue-specific control, as well as for aberrations in gene expression that are associated with cancer and neurological disorders, are addressed. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:200-212, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear architecture ; gene expression ; tumor cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Functional interrelationships between components of nuclear architecture and control of gene expression are becoming increasingly evident. There is growing appreciation that multiple levels of nuclear organization integrate the regulatory cues that support activation and suppression of genes as well as the processing of gene transcripts. The linear organization of genes and promoter elements provide the potential for responsiveness to physiological regulatory signals. Parameters of chromatin structure and nucleosome organization support synergism between activities at independent regulatory sequences and render promoter elements accessible or refractory to transcription factors. Association of genes, transcription factors, and the machinery for transcript processing with the nuclear matrix facilitates fidelity of gene expression within the three-dimensional context of nuclear architecture. Mechanisms must be defined that couple nuclear morphology with enzymatic parameters of gene expression. The recent characterization of factors that mediate chromatin remodeling and intranuclear targeting signals that direct transcription factors to subnuclear domains where gene expression occurs, reflect linkage of genetic and structural components of transcriptional control. Nuclear reorganization and aberrant intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors for developmental and tissue-specific control that occurs in tumor cells and in neurological disorders provides a basis for high resolution diagnostics and targeted therapy. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 30/31:220-231, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9931
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incurable neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease (HD), is caused by an expanded, unstable CAG repeat encoding a stretch of polyglutamine in a 4p16.3 gene (HD) of unknown function. Near the CAG repeat is a polyproline-encoding CCG repeat that shows more limited allelic variation. The mouse homologue,Hdh, has been mapped to chromosome 5, in a region devoid of mutations causing any comparable phenotype. We have isolated overlapping cDNAs from theHdh gene and compared their sequences with the human transcript. The consensus mouse coding sequence is 86% identical to the human at the DNA level and 91% identical at the protein level. Despite the overall high level of conservation,Hdh possesses an imperfect CAG repeat encoding only seven consecutive glutamines, compared to the 13–36 residues that are normal in man. Although no evidence for polymorphic variation of the CAG repeat was seen, a nearby CCG repeat differed in length by one unit between several strains of laboratory mouse andMus spretus. The absence of a long CAG repeat in the mouse is consistent with the lack of a spontaneous mouse model of HD. The information presented concerning the sequence of the mouse gene should facilitate attempts to create such a model.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-08-31
    Description: Analytical Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/ac301691r
    Print ISSN: 0003-2700
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6882
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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