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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Growth ; Enkephalin ; Endogenous opioids ; Immunocytochemistry ; Differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of enkephalin, an endogenous opioid, in tissues and cells of the developing and adult rat was determined by immunocytochemistry with antibodies to met- and leu-enkephalin. Met- and leu-enkephalin were found in all developing cells investigated, with staining generally located throughout the cytoplasm; cell nuclei were not immunoreactive. In comparison to developing cells, immunoreactive analogues to met-enkephalin were usually difficult to detect in the adult. Some notable exceptions were reaction products in leukocytes in blood, lung, and cortex of thymus, fibroblasts in the skin, and seminiferous tubules. These results, in concert with earlier reports that opioid receptors are found largely in developing, but not adult, tissues, indicate that endogenous opioids are specifically involved in biological development, particularly cell proliferation and differentiation. Immunoreactivity in adult nonneural cells may be related to their development in some cases, but also could indicate other functions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: brain spectrin ; actin ; immunofluorescence ; peptide mapping ; protein phosphorylation ; syndeins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane-associated mouse brain spectrin is a 972,000 Mr, 10.5S, (αβ)2 tetramer containing two ∼ 240,000 Mr subunits and two ∼ 235,000 Mr subunits. Two-dimensional [125I]tryptic peptide mapping indicates that these subunits share only limited and equivalent overlap with the α- and β-subunits of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin. Both the 220,000 Mr β-subunit of RBC spectrin and the 235,000 Mr β-subunit of brain spectrin are phosphorylated in the intact mouse. In vitro analysis suggests that both are phosphorylated by a cAMP-independent protein kinase. Antibodies against pure native mouse red blood cell spectrin cross-react with brain spectrin, and antibodies against pure brain spectrin cross-react with both the α-and β-subunits of mouse RBC spectrin. Both antibodies have been utilized to localize brain spectrin within distinct cellular entities of the mouse cerebellum. Granule cell neurons of the internal granule layer and Purkinje cell neurons demonstrated intense fluorscence of the cortical cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane and unstained nuclei, when either RBC or brain spectrin antibodies were utilized for staining. The molecular layer of the cerebellum stained only lightly, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes appeared to have little fluorescence. Therefore, while brain is a tissue rich in nonerythroid spectrin, the concentration of these immunoreactive analogues is quite variable within distinct cellular entities of the cerebellum.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The analgesic response to the hot-plate test was studied in 21-, 45-, 60-, 120- and 300-day-old rats maternally exposed to methadone (5 mg/kg). An elevation in nociceptive threshold, in the absence of further exposure to methadone, was observed in young and adult rats perinatally subjected to methadone.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rat offspring were maternally subjected to methadone hydrochloride during gestation or lactation. At 21 days of age, the area of the pyramis (cerebellar lobule VIII) in prenatally and postnatally exposed groups was reduced 45% and 36%, respectively, from control levels, and the total number of internal granule neurons/section was reduced 49% and 46%, respectively; the number of granule neurons/mm2 in both groups was 75% of control values. Based on histological evaluation the timetable of cerebellar morphogenesis was unaltered in rats prenatally exposed to methadone, suggesting a permanent neuronal deficit, but cerebellar development was markedly delayed in animals subjected postnatally.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 33 (1977), S. 1486-1487 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of maternally administered methadone hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) on brain development of off-spring treated during gestation and/or lactation was studied in 21-day-old rats. Animals treated during gestation or lactation were the most severely affected, with reductions in brain weights (12% and 30%,respectively), and DNA values (50% and 34%, respectively) observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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