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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using polymerase chain reaction, interleukin-6 (IL-6) cDNA fragments from harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), killer whale (Orcinus orca), and Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) were cloned and sequenced. For all three species, a continuous open reading frame encoding 203 residues for harbor seal, 199 residues for killer whale, and 201 residues fro sea otter with stop codons located at analogous positions were identified. These fragments correspond to nucleotides 71–753 of the humanIL-6 transcript and represent 96% of the complete coding nucleotides. Comparison of these marine mammal sequences with other published mammalianIL-6 cDNA demonstrated that both harbor seal and sea otterIL-6 had most similarity to that of other terrestrial carnivores (Mustelidae and Canidae), while killer whale had highest identity with ruminants (Bovidae and Ovidae). Among the three marine mammal species characterized, as well as cDNA sequences from nine other species, 40 invariant amino acids, including a number of residues situated at the putative gp80 and gp130 receptor binding sites, were identified. The presence of invariant amino acids within the receptor-binding portion of IL-6 for twelve different species suggests these positions are essential for biological activity of IL-6 and, moreover, likely account for the cross-reactivity among different mammalian IL-6-like activities in mouse bioassays. An additional significant finding was the presence of several variant residues only within the mouse putative IL-6 receptor binding region, which may account for observations of restricted cross-reactivity of mouse IL-6-like activity in human bioassays. Together, these findings provide insights into the evolution of the mammalianIL-6 gene and additional valuable information regarding amino acid residues essential for the biological activity of mammalian IL-6.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Using polymerase chain reaction, interleukin-6 (IL-6) cDNA fragments from harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), killer whale (Orcinus orca), and Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) were cloned and sequenced. For all three species, a continuous open reading frame encoding 203 residues for harbor seal, 199 residues for killer whale, and 201 residues for sea otter with stop codons located at analogous positions were identified. These fragments correspond to nucleotides 71 – 753 of the human IL-6 transcript and represent 96% of the complete coding nucleotides. Comparison of these marine mammal sequences with other published mammalian IL-6 cDNA demonstrated that both harbor seal and sea otter IL-6 had most similarity to that of other terrestrial carnivores (Mustelidae and Canidae), while killer whale had highest identity with ruminants (Bovidae and Ovidae). Among the three marine mammal species characterized, as well as cDNA sequences from nine other species, 40 invariant amino acids, including a number of residues situated at the putative gp80 and gp130 receptor binding sites, were identified. The presence of invariant amino acids within the receptor-binding portion of IL-6 for twelve different species suggests these positions are essential for biological activity of IL-6 and, moreover, likely account for the cross-reactivity among different mammalian IL-6-like activities in mouse bioassays. An additional significant finding was the presence of several variant residues only within the mouse putative IL-6 receptor binding region, which may account for observations of restricted cross-reactivity of mouse IL-6-like activity in human bioassays. Together, these findings provide insights into the evolution of the mammalian IL-6 gene and additional valuable information regarding amino acid residues essential for the biological activity of mammalian IL-6.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Horse (Equus caballus) immunoglobulin mu chain-encoding (IgM) variable, joining, and constant gene segments were cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analyses of 15 cDNA clones from a mesenteric lymph node library identified 7 unique variable gene segments, 5 separate joining segments, and a single constant region. Based on comparison with human sequences, horse variable segments could be grouped into either family 1 of immunoglobulin (Ig) clan I or family 4 of Ig clan II subclan IV. All horse sequences had a relatively conserved 16 base pair (bp) segment in framework 3 which was recognized with high specificity in polymerase chain reaction by a degenerate oligonucleotide primer. Horse complementarity determining regions (CDR) had considerable variability in predicted amino acid content and length but also included the presence of relatively conserved residues and several canonical sequences that may be necessary in formation of the β chain main structure and conformation of antigen-binding sites through interaction with light chain CDR. Sequence analysis of joining regions revealed the presence of nearly invariant 3′ regions similar to those found in human and mouse genes. A single horse IgM constant region comprising 1472 bp and encoding 451 residues was also identified. Direct comparison of the horse constant region predicted amino acid sequence with those from eleven other species revealed the presence of 53 invariant residues with particularly conserved sequences within the third and fourth exons. Phylogenetic analysis using a neighbor-joining algorithm showed closest similarity of the horse mu chain-encoding constant region gene to human and dog sequences. Together, these findings provide insights into the comparative biology of IgM as well as data for additional detailed studies of the horse immune system and investigation of immune-related diseases.
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