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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 396 (2014): 14-21, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.057.
    Description: We present 28 multiple sulfur isotope measurements of seawater sulfate (δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 and Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4) from the modern ocean over a range of water depths and sites along the eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean. The average measured δ34SSO4δ34SSO4 is 21.24‰ (±0.88‰,2σ±0.88‰,2σ) with a calculated Δ33SSO4Δ33SSO4 of +0.050‰+0.050‰ (±0.014‰,2σ±0.014‰,2σ). With these values, we use a box-model to place constraints on the gross fraction of pyrite burial in modern sediments. This model presents an improvement on previous estimates of the global pyrite burial flux because it does not rely on the assumed value of δ34Spyriteδ34Spyrite, which is poorly constrained, but instead uses new information about the relationship between δ34Sδ34S and δ33Sδ33S in global marine sulfate. Our calculations indicate that the pyrite burial flux from the modern ocean is between 10% and 45% of the total sulfur lost from the oceans, with a more probable range between 20% and 35%.
    Description: RT acknowledges financial support from NERC Grant NE/I00596X/1. Support was provided through NERC grant NE/H011595/1 to AVT. AVT acknowledges financial support from the ERC Starting Investigator Grant 307582. JF acknowledges support from the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
    Keywords: Sulfur isotopes ; Multiple sulfur isotopes ; Pyrite flux ; Sulfur cycle ; Sulfate reduction ; Biogeochemical cycles
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-11-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 14 (2017): 4637-4662, doi:10.5194/bg-14-4637-2017.
    Description: The stoichiometry of biological components and their influence on dissolved distributions have long been of interest in the study of the oceans. Cobalt has the smallest oceanic inventory of inorganic micronutrients and hence is particularly vulnerable to influence by internal oceanic processes including euphotic zone uptake, remineralization, and scavenging. Here we observe not only large variations in dCo : P stoichiometry but also the acceleration of those dCo : P ratios in the upper water column in response to several environmental processes. The ecological stoichiometry of total dissolved cobalt (dCo) was examined using data from a US North Atlantic GEOTRACES transect and from a zonal South Atlantic GEOTRACES-compliant transect (GA03/3_e and GAc01) by Redfieldian analysis of its statistical relationships with the macronutrient phosphate. Trends in the dissolved cobalt to phosphate (dCo : P) stoichiometric relationships were evident in the basin-scale vertical structure of cobalt, with positive dCo : P slopes in the euphotic zone and negative slopes found in the ocean interior and in coastal environments. The euphotic positive slopes were often found to accelerate towards the surface and this was interpreted as being due to the combined influence of depleted phosphate, phosphorus-sparing (conserving) mechanisms, increased alkaline phosphatase metalloenzyme production (a zinc or perhaps cobalt enzyme), and biochemical substitution of Co for depleted Zn. Consistent with this, dissolved Zn (dZn) was found to be drawn down to only 2-fold more than dCo, despite being more than 18-fold more abundant in the ocean interior. Particulate cobalt concentrations increased in abundance from the base of the euphotic zone to become  ∼  10 % of the overall cobalt inventory in the upper euphotic zone with high stoichiometric values of  ∼  400 µmol Co mol−1 P. Metaproteomic results from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station found cyanobacterial isoforms of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme to be prevalent in the upper water column, as well as a sulfolipid biosynthesis protein indicative of P sparing. The negative dCo : P relationships in the ocean interior became increasingly vertical with depth, and were consistent with the sum of scavenging and remineralization processes (as shown by their dCo : P vector sums). Attenuation of the remineralization with depth resulted in the increasingly vertical dCo : P relationships. Analysis of particulate Co with particulate Mn and particulate phosphate also showed positive linear relationships below the euphotic zone, consistent with the presence and increased relative influence of Mn oxide particles involved in scavenging. Visualization of dCo : P slopes across an ocean section revealed hotspots of scavenging and remineralization, such as at the hydrothermal vents and below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) region, respectively, while that of an estimate of Co* illustrated stoichiometrically depleted values in the mesopelagic and deep ocean due to scavenging. This study provides insights into the coupling between the dissolved and particulate phase that ultimately creates Redfield stoichiometric ratios, demonstrating that the coupling is not an instantaneous process and is influenced by the element inventory and rate of exchange between phases. Cobalt's small water column inventory and the influence of external factors on its biotic stoichiometry can erode its limited inertia and result in an acceleration of the dissolved stoichiometry towards that of the particulate phase in the upper euphotic zone. As human use of cobalt grows exponentially with widespread adoption of lithium ion batteries, there is a potential to affect the limited biogeochemical inertia of cobalt and its resultant ecology in the oceanic euphotic zone.
    Description: This work was funded by the National Science Foundation as part of the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect program under grants OCE-0928414 and OCE-1435056 (to Mak A. Saito), OCE-0928289 (to Benjamin S. Twining), OCE-0963026 (to Phoebe Lam) and support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (3782 to Mak A. Saito).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Biological Chemistry 288 (2013): 8468-8478, doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.433540.
    Description: The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi represents a novel organism in which to study metalloprotein biology in that this spirochete has uniquely evolved with no requirement for iron. Not only is iron low, but we show here that B. burgdorferi has the capacity to accumulate remarkably high levels of manganese. This high manganese is necessary to activate the SodA superoxide dismutase (SOD) essential for virulence. Using a metalloproteomic approach, we demonstrate that a bulk of B. burgdorferi SodA directly associates with manganese and a smaller pool of inactive enzyme accumulates as apoprotein. Other metalloproteins may have similarly adapted to using manganese as co-factor including the BB0366 amino-peptidase. While B. burgdorferi SodA has evolved in a manganese-rich, iron-poor environment, the opposite is true for Mn-SODs of organisms such as E. coli and bakers’ yeast. These Mn-SODs still capture manganese in an iron-rich cell, and we tested whether the same is true for Borrelia SodA. When expressed in the iron-rich mitochondria of S. cerevisiae, B. burgdorferi SodA was inactive. Activity was only possible when cells accumulated extremely high levels of manganese that exceeded cellular iron. Moreover, there was no evidence for iron inactivation of the SOD. B. burgdorferi SodA shows strong overall homology with other members of the Mn-SOD family, but computer assisted modeling revealed some unusual features of the hydrogen bonding network near the enzyme’s active site. The unique properties of B. burgdorferi SodA may represent adaptation to expression in the manganese-rich and iron-poor environment of the spirochete.
    Keywords: Lyme disease ; Manganese ; Iron ; Superoxide dismutase ; Mitochondria
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Marine Science 5 (2018): 61, doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00061.
    Description: The distribution of dissolved iron (Fe), total organic Fe-binding ligands, and siderophores were measured between the surface and 400 m at Station ALOHA, a long term ecological study site in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Dissolved Fe concentrations were low throughout the water column and strong organic Fe-binding ligands exceeded dissolved Fe at all depths; varying from 0.9 nmol L−1 in the surface to 1.6 nmol L−1 below 150 m. Although Fe does not appear to limit microbial production, we nevertheless found siderophores at nearly all depths, indicating some populations of microbes were responding to Fe stress. Ferrioxamine siderophores were most abundant in the upper water column, with concentrations between 0.1 and 2 pmol L−1, while a suite of amphibactins were found below 200 m with concentrations between 0.8 and 11 pmol L−1. The distinct vertical distribution of ferrioxamines and amphibactins may indicate disparate strategies for acquiring Fe from dust in the upper water column and recycled organic matter in the lower water column. Amphibactins were found to have conditional stability constants (log KcondFeL1,Fe′) ranging from 12.0 to 12.5, while ferrioxamines had much stronger conditional stability constants ranging from 14.0 to 14.4, within the range of observed L1 ligands by voltammetry. We used our data to calculate equilibrium Fe speciation at Station ALOHA to compare the relative concentration of inorganic and siderophore complexed Fe. The results indicate that the concentration of Fe bound to siderophores was up to two orders of magnitude higher than inorganic Fe, suggesting that even if less bioavailable, siderophores were nevertheless a viable pathway for Fe acquisition by microbes at our study site. Finally, we observed rapid production of ferrioxamine E by particle-associated bacteria during incubation of freshly collected sinking organic matter. Fe-limitation may therefore be a factor in regulating carbon metabolism and nutrient regeneration in the mesopelagic.
    Description: This work was funded by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Postdoctoral Fellowship for RaB, the Simons Foundation (Award 329108), and the National Science Foundation (OCE-1356747).
    Keywords: Iron ; Siderophores ; Station ALOHA ; Organic ligands ; Iron limitation
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 15 (2018): 4923-4942, doi:10.5194/bg-15-4923-2018.
    Description: Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankter of the Ross Sea where it dominates the early season bloom after sea ice retreat and is a major contributor to carbon export. The factors that influence Phaeocystis colony formation and the resultant Ross Sea bloom initiation have been of great scientific interest, yet there is little known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. Here, we present laboratory and field studies on Phaeocystis antarctica grown under multiple iron conditions using a coupled proteomic and transcriptomic approach. P. antarctica had a lower iron limitation threshold than a Ross Sea diatom Chaetoceros sp., and at increased iron nutrition (〉120pM Fe') a shift from flagellate cells to a majority of colonial cells in P. antarctica was observed, implying a role for iron as a trigger for colony formation. Proteome analysis revealed an extensive and coordinated shift in proteome structure linked to iron availability and life cycle transitions with 327 and 436 proteins measured as significantly different between low and high iron in strains 1871 and 1374, respectively. The enzymes flavodoxin and plastocyanin that can functionally replace iron metalloenzymes were observed at low iron treatments consistent with cellular iron-sparing strategies, with plastocyanin having a larger dynamic range. The numerous isoforms of the putative iron-starvation-induced protein (ISIP) group (ISIP2A and ISIP3) had abundance patterns coinciding with that of either low or high iron (and coincident flagellate or the colonial cell types in strain 1871), implying that there may be specific iron acquisition systems for each life cycle type. The proteome analysis also revealed numerous structural proteins associated with each cell type: within flagellate cells actin and tubulin from flagella and haptonema structures as well as a suite of calcium-binding proteins with EF domains were observed. In the colony-dominated samples a variety of structural proteins were observed that are also often found in multicellular organisms including spondins, lectins, fibrillins, and glycoproteins with von Willebrand domains. A large number of proteins of unknown function were identified that became abundant at either high or low iron availability. These results were compared to the first metaproteomic analysis of a Ross Sea Phaeocystis bloom to connect the mechanistic information to the in situ ecology and biogeochemistry. Proteins associated with both flagellate and colonial cells were observed in the bloom sample consistent with the need for both cell types within a growing bloom. Bacterial iron storage and B12 biosynthesis proteins were also observed consistent with chemical synergies within the colony microbiome to cope with the biogeochemical conditions. Together these responses reveal a complex, highly coordinated effort by P. antarctica to regulate its phenotype at the molecular level in response to iron and provide a window into the biology, ecology, and biogeochemistry of this group.
    Description: Support for this study was provided by an Investigator grant to Mak A. Saito from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF3782), National Science Foundation grants NSF-PLR 0732665, OCE-1435056, OCE-1220484, and ANT-1643684, the WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, and a CINAR Postdoctoral Scholar Fellowship provided to Sara J. Bender through the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Support was provided to Andrew E. Allen through NSF awards ANT-0732822, ANT-1043671, and OCE-1136477 and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF3828. Additional support was provided to GRD through NSF award OPP-0338097.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-04
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. The definitive version was published in mSystems 4(1), (2019): 4:e00317-18, doi:10.1128/mSystems.00317-18.
    Description: Two-component sensory (TCS) systems link microbial physiology to the environment and thus may play key roles in biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we surveyed the TCS systems of 328 diverse marine bacterial species. We identified lifestyle traits such as copiotrophy and diazotrophy that are associated with larger numbers of TCS system genes within the genome. We compared marine bacterial species with 1,152 reference bacterial species from a variety of habitats and found evidence of extra response regulators in marine genomes. Examining the location of TCS genes along the circular bacterial genome, we also found that marine bacteria have a large number of “orphan” genes, as well as many hybrid histidine kinases. The prevalence of “extra” response regulators, orphan genes, and hybrid TCS systems suggests that marine bacteria break with traditional understanding of how TCS systems operate. These trends suggest prevalent regulatory networking, which may allow coordinated physiological responses to multiple environmental signals and may represent a specific adaptation to the marine environment. We examine phylogenetic and lifestyle traits that influence the number and structure of two-component systems in the genome, finding, for example, that a lack of two-component systems is a hallmark of oligotrophy. Finally, in an effort to demonstrate the importance of TCS systems to marine biogeochemistry, we examined the distribution of Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus response regulator PMT9312_0717 in metaproteomes of the tropical South Pacific. We found that this protein’s abundance is related to phosphate concentrations, consistent with a putative role in phosphate regulation.
    Description: We thank Joe Jennings at Oregon State University and Chris Dupont at the J. Craig Venter Institute for providing nutrient and metagenomic analyses, respectively, for the KM1128 METZYME research expedition. We also thank our anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments. This material is based on work supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant number 1122274 (N. A. Held). It was also supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant number 3782 [M. Saito]) and by the National Science Foundation (grant numbers OCE-1657766, EarthCube 1639714, OCE-1658030, and OCE-1260233).
    Keywords: biogeochemistry ; cell signaling ; gene regulation ; marine microbiology ; proteomics ; regulatory network ; two-component system
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-19
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Bundy, R. M., Boiteau, R. M., McLean, C., Turk-Kubo, K. A., Mcllvin, M. R., Saito, M. A., Van Mooy, B. A. S., & Repeta, D. J.. Distinct siderophores contribute to iron cycling in the mesopelagic at station ALOHA. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, (2018): 61. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00061.
    Description: The distribution of dissolved iron (Fe), total organic Fe-binding ligands, and siderophores were measured between the surface and 400 m at Station ALOHA, a long term ecological study site in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Dissolved Fe concentrations were low throughout the water column and strong organic Fe-binding ligands exceeded dissolved Fe at all depths; varying from 0.9 nmol L−1 in the surface to 1.6 nmol L−1 below 150 m. Although Fe does not appear to limit microbial production, we nevertheless found siderophores at nearly all depths, indicating some populations of microbes were responding to Fe stress. Ferrioxamine siderophores were most abundant in the upper water column, with concentrations between 0.1 and 2 pmol L−1, while a suite of amphibactins were found below 200 m with concentrations between 0.8 and 11 pmol L−1. The distinct vertical distribution of ferrioxamines and amphibactins may indicate disparate strategies for acquiring Fe from dust in the upper water column and recycled organic matter in the lower water column. Amphibactins were found to have conditional stability constants (log KcondFeL1,Fe′) ranging from 12.0 to 12.5, while ferrioxamines had much stronger conditional stability constants ranging from 14.0 to 14.4, within the range of observed L1 ligands by voltammetry. We used our data to calculate equilibrium Fe speciation at Station ALOHA to compare the relative concentration of inorganic and siderophore complexed Fe. The results indicate that the concentration of Fe bound to siderophores was up to two orders of magnitude higher than inorganic Fe, suggesting that even if less bioavailable, siderophores were nevertheless a viable pathway for Fe acquisition by microbes at our study site. Finally, we observed rapid production of ferrioxamine E by particle-associated bacteria during incubation of freshly collected sinking organic matter. Fe-limitation may therefore be a factor in regulating carbon metabolism and nutrient regeneration in the mesopelagic.
    Description: We thank Chief Scientists Tara Clemente and Sam Wilson for leading the SCOPE Diel cruises. We also thank the Captain and crew of the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa, as well as Paul Henderson in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Nutrient Analytical Facility for nutrient analyses. This work was funded by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Postdoctoral Fellowship for RaB, the Simons Foundation (Award 329108), and the National Science Foundation (OCE-1356747). We also thank two reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript.
    Keywords: iron ; siderophores ; Station ALOHA ; organic ligands ; iron limitation
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-06
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Diaz, J. M., Plummer, S., Hansel, C. M., Andeer, P. F., Saito, M. A., & McIlvin, M. R. NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116 (33), (2019): 16448-16453, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1821233116.
    Description: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide drive rapid transformations of carbon and metals in aquatic systems and play dynamic roles in biological health, signaling, and defense across a diversity of cell types. In phytoplankton, however, the ecophysiological role(s) of extracellular superoxide production has remained elusive. Here, the mechanism and function of extracellular superoxide production by the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica are described. Extracellular superoxide production in T. oceanica exudates was coupled to the oxidation of NADPH. A putative NADPH-oxidizing flavoenzyme with predicted transmembrane domains and high sequence similarity to glutathione reductase (GR) was implicated in this process. GR was also linked to extracellular superoxide production by whole cells via quenching by the flavoenzyme inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and oxidized glutathione, the preferred electron acceptor of GR. Extracellular superoxide production followed a typical photosynthesis-irradiance curve and increased by 30% above the saturation irradiance of photosynthesis, while DPI significantly impaired the efficiency of photosystem II under a wide range of light levels. Together, these results suggest that extracellular superoxide production is a byproduct of a transplasma membrane electron transport system that serves to balance the cellular redox state through the recycling of photosynthetic NADPH. This photoprotective function may be widespread, consistent with the presence of putative homologs to T. oceanica GR in other representative marine phytoplankton and ocean metagenomes. Given predicted climate-driven shifts in global surface ocean light regimes and phytoplankton community-level photoacclimation, these results provide implications for future ocean redox balance, ecological functioning, and coupled biogeochemical transformations of carbon and metals.
    Description: This work was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Ford Foundation (to J.M.D.), the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grants OCE 1225801 (to J.M.D.) and OCE 1246174 (to C.M.H.), a Junior Faculty Seed Grant from the University of Georgia Research Foundation (to J.M.D.), and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (to S.P.). The FIRe was purchased through a NSF equipment improvement grant (1624593).The authors thank Melissa Soule for assistance with LC/MS/MS analysis of peptide samples.
    Keywords: reactive oxygen species ; photosynthesis ; oxidative stress ; biogeochemistry
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in The ISME Journal 6 (2012): 951–960, doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.171.
    Description: Nitrogen can be a limiting macronutrient for carbon uptake by the marine biosphere. The process of denitrification (conversion of nitrate to gaseous compounds, including N2) removes bioavailable nitrogen, particularly in marine sediments, making it a key factor in the marine nitrogen budget. Benthic foraminifera reportedly perform complete denitrification, a process previously considered nearly exclusively performed by bacteria and archaea. If the ability to denitrify is widespread among these diverse and abundant protists, a paradigm shift is required for biogeochemistry and marine microbial ecology. However, to date, the mechanisms of foraminiferal denitrification are unclear and it is possible that the ability to perform complete denitrification is due to symbiont metabolism in some foraminiferal species. Using sequence analysis and GeneFISH, we show that for a symbiont-bearing foraminifer, the potential for denitrification resides in the endobionts. Results also identify the endobionts as denitrifying pseudomonads and show that the allogromiid accumulates nitrate intracellularly, presumably for use in denitrification. Endobionts have been observed within many foraminiferal species, and in the case of associations with denitrifying bacteria, may provide fitness for survival in anoxic conditions. These associations may have been a driving force for early foraminiferal diversification, which is thought to have occurred in the Neoproterozoic when anoxia was widespread.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF grant EF-0702491 to JMB, KLC and VPE; some ship support was provided by NSF MCB-0604084 to VPE and JMB.
    Description: 2012-06-01
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-11
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of John Wiley & Sons for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proteomics 15 (2015): 3521-3531, doi:10.1002/pmic.201400630.
    Description: Proteomics has great potential for studies of marine microbial biogeochemistry, yet high microbial diversity in many locales presents us with unique challenges. We addressed this challenge with a targeted metaproteomics workflow for NtcA and P-II, two nitrogen regulatory proteins, and demonstrated its application for cyanobacterial taxa within microbial samples from the Central Pacific Ocean. Using METATRYP, an open-source Python toolkit, we examined the number of shared (redundant) tryptic peptides in representative marine microbes, with the number of tryptic peptides shared between different species typically being 1% or less. The related cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus shared an average of 4.8+1.9% of their tryptic peptides, while shared intraspecies peptides were higher, 13+15% shared peptides between 12 Prochlorococcus genomes. An NtcA peptide was found to target multiple cyanobacteria species, whereas a P-II peptide showed specificity to the high-light Prochlorococcus ecotype. Distributions of NtcA and P-II in the Central Pacific Ocean were similar except at the Equator likely due to differential nitrogen stress responses between Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. The number of unique tryptic peptides coded for within three combined oceanic microbial metagenomes was estimated to be ~4x107, 1000-fold larger than an individual microbial proteome and 27-fold larger than the human proteome, yet still 20 orders of magnitude lower than the peptide diversity possible in all protein space, implying that peptide mapping algorithms should be able to withstand the added level of complexity in metaproteomic samples.
    Description: This research was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the US National Science Foundation under grant numbers 3782, 3934, OCE-1260233, OCE-1233261, OCE-1220484, OCE-1333212 and OCE-1155566, and the Center for Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE).
    Description: 2016-06-11
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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