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  • 1
    ISSN: 1467-8551
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper reviews the state of the field of the sub-disciplines within UK management research, based upon the submissions of 94 UK higher education institutions to the Business and Management Studies Panel in the UK's 2001 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). It offers observations on the UK model of the assessment of quality in, and funding of, research conducted in publicly funded higher education institutions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Osteoclast — Monocyte — Macrophage — Differentiation — Bone Resorption.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Mononuclear precursors of the human osteoclast have been identified in both bone marrow and the circulation in man, but osteoclast membership of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and its precise cellular ontogeny remain controversial. We isolated human hematopoietic marrow cells, blood monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages and incubated each of these cell populations with UMR106 osteoblast-like cells on glass coverslips and dentine slices in both the presence and absence of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and dexamethasone. Cells isolated from peripheral blood and peritoneal dialysis fluid were positive only for monocyte/macrophage markers (CD11a, CD11b, CD14, and HLA-DR) and negative for osteoclast markers [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), vitronectin reception (VNR), and calcitonin (CT) receptors and did not form resorption pits on dentine slices after 24 hours in culture. Similarly marrow cells did not form resorption pits on dentine slices after 24 hours in culture. However, after 14 days in co-culture with UMR106 cells, in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 and M-CSF, numerous TRAP, CT receptor, and VNR-positive multinucleated cells capable of extensive lacunar resorption were formed in co-cultures of all these preparations. The presence of 1,25 (OH)2D3, M-CSF, and UMR106 were absolute requirements for osteoclast differentiation. It is concluded that precursor cells capable of osteoclast differentiation are present in the marrow compartment, the monocyte fraction of peripheral blood, and in the macrophage compartment of extraskeletal tissues and that these cells are capable of differentiating into mature functional osteoclasts. These findings argue in favor of osteoclast membership of the human MPS.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Osteoclast — Differentiation — Bone resorption — Prostaglandins.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The effect of prostaglandins (PGs) on osteoclast differentiation, an important point of control for bone resorption, is poorly understood. After an initial differentiation phase that lasts at least 4 days, murine monocytes, cocultured with UMR106 osteoblastic cells (in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) give rise to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclast-like cells that are capable of lacunar bone resorption. PGE2 strongly inhibits TRAP expression and bone resorption in these cocultures. To examine further the cellular mechanisms associated with this inhibitory effect, we added PGE2 to monocyte/UMR106 cocultures at specific times before, during, and after this initial 4-day differentiation period. To determine whether this PGE2 inhibition was dependent on the type of stromal cell supporting osteoclast differentiation, we also added PGE2 to cocultures of monocytes with ST2 preadipocytic cells. Inhibition of bone resorption was greatly reduced when the addition of PGE2 to monocyte/UMR106 cocultures was delayed until the fourth day of incubation; when delayed until the seventh day, inhibition did not occur. PGE2 inhibition of bone resorption was concentration-dependent and at 10−6 M was also mediated by PGE1 and PGF2α. In contrast to its effects on monocyte/UMR106 cocultures, PGE2 stimulated bone resorption in monocyte/ST2 cocultures. Both ST2 cells and UMR106 cells were shown to express functional receptors for PGE2. These results show that PGs strongly influence the differentiation of osteoclast precursors and that this effect is dependent not only on the type and dose of PG administered, but also on the nature of the bone-derived stromal cell supporting this process.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 210 (1966), S. 192-192 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] All indications are that the phenomena commence at the cathode, and it is the purpose of this communication to report some further observations on the form of the light emission from the cathode in n-hexane resulting from the application of h'gh d.c. fields. The test cell, electrode systems and ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: trilostane ; ketotrilostane ; reversible metabolism ; pharmacokinetics ; metabolic interconversion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The pharmacokinetics of trilostane and one of its metabolites ketotrilostane are described and characterized in the rat following the separate intravenous administration of trilostane and ketotrilostane. It was noted during these studies that the parent compound and its metabolite undergo metabolic interconversion–trilostane producing ketotrilostane and ketotrilostane generating trilostane. This result means that trilostane is conserved in the body by interconversion-being metabolized to ketotrilostane and then subsequently back to the “parent” drug, trilostane.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Homologous recombination ; Protoplast transformation ; β-Glucuronidase ; Maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The requirements for homologous recombination between plasmid DNA molecules have been studied using the PEG (polyethylene glycol)-mediated transformation system of maize (Zea mays L.) protoplasts coupled with the transient expression assay for β-glucuronidase (GUS). Two plasmids were introduced into maize protoplasts; one plasmid (pB×26) contained a genomic clone of the Adh1 maize gene; the other plasmid (piGUS) was a promoterless construction containing part of intron A of the Adhl gene fused to the gusA coding sequence. Thus, the two vectors shared an effective homologous region consisting of a 459 by (Hindlll—PvuII) fragment of the yAdh1 intron A sequence. An active gusA fusion gene would result upon homologous recombination between the plasmids within the intron A sequence, and indeed GUS activity was observed in extracts following co-transformation of maize protoplasts with the two plasmids. The presence of recombinant DNA molecules in protoplast DNA isolated 1 day after co-transformation was verified using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blots. For efficient homologous recombination, both plasmids had to be linearized. The recombination reaction was induced by restriction of the plasmid molecules either inside the effective homologous region or at the borders of the intron sequence. However, the presence of even small, terminal, nonhomologous sequences at the 3′ end of the pB×26 fragment inhibited the recombination reaction. Also, both ends of the linearized piGUS DNA molecules were involved in the recombination reaction. The results revealed some features of homologous recombination reactions occurring in plant cells which cannot be accommodated by mechanisms postulated for similar reactions in animal system and in lower eukaryotes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 16 (1924), S. 128-130 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 67 (1945), S. 1039-1040 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 241 (1973), S. 264-264 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Experience with this first type of tube has shown the high sensitivity of the device and high quality of the recorded images with excellent image definition, almost zero fog background, linear relationship of density with exposure and wide spectral range of sensitivity, thus making the tube very ...
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