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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The flow around blunt trailing edge airfoils was studied by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure combines a grid around the airfoil with a second grid for the wake so that the time advancement over the domain is fully implicit. This is not only very efficient for the algorithm but also allows implicit solutions of a one equation turbulence model appropriate for both boundary layers and wakes. An algebraic and two one-equation turbulence models are tested for a blunt RAE 2822 airfoil section and detailed comparisons with experimental data are presented in the trailing edge region.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0024
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The unsteady, three-dimensional flow field of a helicopter rotor blade encountering a passing vortex is calculated by solving the Euler/thin layer Navier-Stokes equations by a finite-difference numerical procedure. A prescribed vortex method is adopted to preserve the structure of the interacting vortex. The cases considered for computation correspond to the experimental model rotor test conditions of Caradonna, et al. and consist of parallel and oblique interactions. Comparison of the numerical results with test data show good agreement for both parallel and oblique interactions at subsonic and transonic tip speeds.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1848
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A numerical method for solving the Euler equations for multiblade rotors has been developed. The computed results, including one nonlifting forward-flight and several lifting hovering cases, are compared with experimental data. For forward-flight case, the unsteady growth and decay of the shock agree well with experimental results. For hovering case, at low and moderate transonic tip speed, the results show good agreement with experimental data in the tip region. The near-wake effects can be captured without wake modeling.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 88-0046
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The growing application of computational aerodynamics to nonlinear rotorcraft problems is outlined, with particular emphasis on the development of new methods based on the Euler and thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Rotor airfoil characteristics can now be calculated accurately over a wide range of transonic flow conditions. However, unsteady 3-D viscous codes remain in the research stage, and a numerical simulation of the complete flow field about a helicopter in forward flight is not now feasible. Nevertheless, impressive progress is being made in preparation for future supercomputers that will enable meaningful calculations to be made for arbitrary rotorcraft configurations.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-100066 , AD-A197977 , USAAVSCOM-TR-88-A-001 , A-88094 , NAS 1.15:100066
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The optimum design of the advancing helicopter rotor for high-speed forward flight always involves a tradeoff between transonic and stall limitations. However, the preoccupation of the rotor industry was primarily concerned with stall until well into the 1970s. This emphasis on stall resulted from the prevalent use of low-solidity rotors with rather outdated airfoil sections. The use of cambered airfoil sections and higher-solidity rotors substantially reduced stall and revealed the advancing transonic flow to be a more persistent limitation to high-speed rotor performance. Work in this area was spurred not only by operational necessity but also by the development of a tool for the prediction of these flows (the method of computational fluid dynamics). The development of computational fluid dynamics for these rotor problems was a major Army and NASA achievement. This work is now being extended to other rotor flow problems. The developments are outlined.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA, Washington, NASA(Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 1: Aerodynamics, and Dynamics and Aeroelasticity; p 34-65
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Fluid Dynamics Panel of AGARD arranged a Symposium on Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aeronautics, on 7 to 10 April 1986 in Aix-en-Provence, France. The purpose of the Symposium was to provide an assessment of the status of CFD in aerodynamic design and analysis, with an emphasis on emerging applications of advanced computational techniques to complex configurations. Sessions were devoted specifically to grid generation, methods for inviscid flows, calculations of viscous-inviscid interactions, and methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The 31 papers presented at the meeting are published in AGARD Conference Proceedings CP-412 and are listed in the Appendix of this report. A brief synopsis of each paper and some general conclusions and recommendations are given.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:88356 , NASA-TM-88356 , A-86399 , AD-A178165
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the drag of two-dimensional wing sections operating in a near-vertical flow condition. Various leading- and trialing-edge configurations, including plain flaps of 25, 30, and 35% chord were tested at angles of attack from -75 to -105 deg. Reynolds numbers examined ranged from approximately 0.6 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.4 x 10 to the 6th power. The data were obtained using a wind tunnel force and moment balance system and arrays of chordwise pressure orifices. The results showed that significant reductions in drag, beyond what would be expected by virtue of the decreased frontal area, were obtainable with geometries that delayed flow separation. Rapid changes in drag with angle of attack were noted for many configurations. The results, however, were fairly insensitive to Reynolds number variations. Drag values computed from the pressure data generally agreed with the force data within 2%.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: A-86427 , NAS 1.15:88373 , AD-A178696 , NASA-TM-88373 , USAAVSCOM-TM-86-A-8
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thin layer Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are numerically solved using a multi-block zonal approach to simulate the formation and roll up of tip vortices of wings in subsonic and transonic flows. Several wing planforms were considered to examine the influence of tip-cap shape, planform geometry and free stream Mach number on the formation process. A good definition of the formation and qualitative roll up of tip vortices was achieved.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AD-A172312 , A-86415 , NAS 1.15:88334 , USAAVSCOM-TM-86-A-4 , NASA-TM-88334
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Unsteady interactions of strong concentrated vortices, distributed gusts, and sharp-edged gusts with stationary airfoils were analyzed in two-dimensional transonic flow. A simple and efficient method for introducing such vortical disturbances was implemented in numerical codes that range from inviscid transonic small disturbance to thin-layer Navier Stokes. The numerical results demonstrate the large distortions in the overall flow field and in the surface air loads that are produced by various vortical interactions. The results of the different codes are in excellent qualitative agreement, but, as might expected, the transonic small-disturbance calculations are deficient in the important region near the leading edge.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: REPT-85075 , NAS 1.15:86658 , NASA-TM-86658 , USAAVSCOM-TM-84-A-10 , AD-A152417
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86018 , A-9877 , USAAVSCOM-TM-84-A-8 , NAS 1.15:86018
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