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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22 (1). pp. 83-92.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Antarctic Bottom Water flows into the western North Atlantic across the equator, shifting from the western side to the eastern side of the trough between the American continents and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as it continues north. This is puzzling because such large-scale motion is thought to be controlled by dynamics that disallows an eastern boundary current. Previous explanations for the transposition involve a (necessarily small-scale) density current that changes sides because of the change in sign of rotation across the equator, or a topographic effect that changes the sign of the effective mean vorticity gradient and thus requires an eastern boundary current. Here an alternative explanation for the overall structure of bottom flow is given. A source of mass to a thin bottom layer is assumed to upwell uniformly across its interface into a less dense layer at rest. A simple formula for the magnitude of the upwelling and thickness of the layer is derived that depends on the source strength to the bottom layer. For a strong enough source, the bottom layer thickness is zero along a grounding curve that separates the bottom water from the western boundary and confines it to the east. A band of recirculating interior flow occurs, supplied by an isolated northern and western boundary current. Similar structures appear to exist in the Antarctic Bottom Water of the western North Atlantic.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 391 (1998), S. 575-577 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The spatial distributions of certain sea-surface properties, such as temperature, fluctuate on timescales from months to decades and in synchrony with the main regional atmospheric patterns comprising the global climate system. Although it has long been assumed that the ocean is submissive to ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Also published as: Journal of Marine Research 38 (1980): 147-172
    Description: A hydrographic section made in July 1977 from the research vessel KNORR revealed a large-scale meridional distortion of the normal water mass distributions at 55W in the North Atlantic. Cells of pure Labrador Sea Water were found within both the Gulf Stream and the westward recirculation of the gyre. A large cell of Mediterranean Water was found in the Slope Water, in contact with a cell of Subarctic Intermediate Water. Water at 11°C to 13°C within both the Gulf Stream and the Slope Water was anomalously saline. Throughout the Slope Water, Gulf Stream, and northern Sargasso Sea there was very little standard Western North Atlantic Water in the temperature ranges 3.4° to 9.0°C and 11° to 13°C. It is suggested that these meridional distortions are due in part to an increase in the amount of rotation of the horizontal velocity vector with depth during 1977 that was observed with current meters in the northern Sargasso Sea. An increase in the westward return flow strength may also have contributed. The ultimate cause of the anomalous property distributions and currents may be changes in the production rate and strength of the source waters for North Atlantic Deep Water and western North Atlantic Water such as Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Water, and Eighteen Degree Water. The first and the last are known to have undergone convective formation events, in March 1976, and March 1977, respectively, in the period preceding the 1977 survey. The July 1977 section shows evidence of the recirculation of the new convectively formed Eighteen Degree Water.
    Description: Prepared for the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-74-C-0262; NR 083-004, N00014-76-C-0197; NR 083-400 and for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration Office of the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE 75-03962.
    Keywords: Ocean circulation ; Knorr (Ship : 1970-) Cruise KN60 ; Knorr (Ship : 1970-) Cruise KN66
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-04-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121 (2016): 7390–7407, doi:10.1002/2015JC011594.
    Description: The Antarctic Slope Current (ASC), defined here as the region of westward flow along the continental slope off Antarctica, forms the southern limb of the subpolar gyres. It regulates the exchange of water across the shelf break and provides a path for interbasin westward transport. Despite its significance, the ASC remains largely unobserved around most of the Antarctic continent. Here we present direct velocity observations from a 17 month current meter moored array deployed across the continental slope between the 1000 and the 4200 m isobaths, in the southeastern Indian Ocean near 113°E. The observed time-mean flow consists of a surface-intensified jet associated with the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) and a broader bottom-intensified westward flow that extends out to approximately the 4000 m isobath and is strongest along the upper slope. The time-mean transport of the ASC is −29.2 Sv. Fluctuations in the transport are large, typically exceeding the mean by a factor of 2. They are mainly due to changes in the northward extent of the current over the lower slope. However, seasonal changes in the wind also drive variations in the transport of the ASF and the flow in the upper slope. Both mean and variability are largely barotropic, thus invisible to traditional geostrophic methods
    Description: M.S.M. and the current meter array were supported by the National Science Foundation grant 0727045 ‘‘Measuring Westward Recirculation in the Subpolar Gyre of the Southeastern Indian Ocean.’’ B.P.M. and S.R.R. were supported by the Cooperative Research Centre program of the Australian Government, through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre. S.R.R. was also supported by the Australian Government Department of the Environment, the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO through the Australian Climate Change Science Program.
    Description: 2017-04-12
    Keywords: Antarctic Slope Current ; Transport ; Barotropic ; Time-mean ; Variability ; Subpolar gyre
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 7488–7505, doi:10.1002/2017JC012984.
    Description: A moored array spanning the continental slope southeast of Cape Cod sampled the equatorward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) for a 10 year period: May 2004 to May 2014. Daily profiles of subinertial velocity, temperature, salinity, and neutral density are constructed for each mooring site and cross-line DWBC transport time series are derived for specified water mass layers. Time-averaged transports based on daily estimates of the flow and density fields in Stream coordinates are contrasted with those derived from the Eulerian-mean flow field, modes of DWBC transport variability are investigated through compositing, and comparisons are made to transport estimates for other latitudes. Integrating the daily velocity estimates over the neutral density range of 27.8–28.125 kg/m3 (encompassing Labrador Sea and Overflow Water layers), a mean equatorward DWBC transport of 22.8 × 106 ± 1.9 × 106 m3/s is obtained. Notably, a statistically significant trend of decreasing equatorward transport is observed in several of the DWBC components as well as the current as a whole. The largest linear change (a 4% decrease per year) is seen in the layer of Labrador Sea Water that was renewed by deep convection in the early 1990s whose transport fell from 9.0 × 106 m3/s at the beginning of the field program to 5.8 × 106 m3/s at its end. The corresponding linear fit to the combined Labrador Sea and Overflow Water DWBC transport decreases from 26.4 × 106 to 19.1 × 106 m3/s. In contrast, no long-term trend is observed in upper ocean Slope Water transport. These trends are discussed in the context of decadal observations of the North Atlantic circulation, and subpolar air-sea interaction/water mass transformation.
    Description: G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; US National Science Foundation
    Description: 2018-03-15
    Keywords: Deep Western Boundary Current ; Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Current and temperature measurements from Vector Averaging Current Meters (VACMs) deployed from September 1992 to June 1994 as part of the Deep Basin Experiment (DBE) measuring the trans-equatorial water flow are presented. Salinity and temperature measurements from Conductivity/Temperature/Depth (CTD) casts taken during the mooring deployment and recovery cruises are also presented. Six mooring sites were occupied with a total of 24 vector averaging current meters and 4 Aanderaa current meters. Three nominal depths (3900, 4100 and 4300 m.) were occupied on each mooring. Three of the 6 moorings had current meters at additional depths. Basic data from the vector averaging current meters are presented both in statistical tables and graphically as histograms, scatter plots, progressive vector diagrams and spectral diagrams. One day Gaussian filtered plots are shown in composite displays of variables versus time. Temperature and salinity profies and e/s plots for 22 CTD stations are presented.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. OCE-9105834.
    Keywords: Moored current measurements ; Antarctic bottom water ; Equatorial Atlantic Deep Water flow ; Columbus Iselin (Ship) Cruise CI9210 ; Knorr (Ship : 1970-) Cruise KN142-4
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: 2924798 bytes
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Figures 37 and 38 have been reduced from their original size for the purpose of scanning.
    Description: During March/April 1976 the small-scale structure of the Antarctic Polar Front was observed in the Drake Passage. The observations were part of the International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS) program called FDRAke 76. The purpose of the program was to obtain densely sampled measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chemical nutrients in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and pilot measurements of horizontal and vertical velocities in order to explain the above scalar variability. The PFZ is a region where Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters intermingle and presumably mix to affect the properties of Antarctic Intermediate Water. A report on the third leg of Cruise 107 of the R. V. THOMPSON is presented as well as a description of the measurements and a preliminary report of the data. A feature of interest is the pinching off of a northward meander of the circumpolar current system into a cyclonic ring of Antarctic Waters.
    Description: Prepared for the National Science Foundation, Office for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration, under Grant OCE75-14056 and the International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS) Program.
    Keywords: International Southern Ocean Studies ; Fronts ; Thomas G. Thompson (Ship) Cruise TN107
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 57 (2010): 258-283, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2009.11.006.
    Description: Historical hydrographic data, spanning the period 1896-2006, are used to examine the annual mean and seasonal variations in the distribution of freshwater along and across the shelf/slope boundary along the Labrador and Newfoundland Shelves and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Particular attention is paid to the export of freshwater along the eastern Grand Banks, between Flemish Cap and the Tail of the Grand Banks, as this has long been identified as a preferential region for the loss of mass and freshwater from the boundary. The data are combined into isopycnally averaged long-term annual and monthly mean gridded property fields and the evolving distribution of fresh arctic-origin water is analyzed in fields of salinity anomaly, expressed as departures from the “central water” temperature-salinity relation of the Gulf Stream. The climatology confirms that cold/fresh northern-source waters are advected offshore within the retroflecting Labrador Current along the full length of the boundary between Flemish Cap and the Tail of the Grand Banks. In fact, it is estimated that most of the equatorward baroclinic transport at the boundary must retroflect back toward the north in order to explain the annual mean distribution of salinity in the climatology. While the retroflection of the Labrador Current appears seasonally robust, the freshwater distribution within the retroflection region varies in response to (1) the freshness of the water available for export which is set by the arrival and rapid flushing of the seasonal freshwater pulse at the boundary, (2) seasonal buoyancy forcing at the surface which alters the vertical stratification across the retroflection region, restricting certain isopycnal export pathways, and (3) the density structure along the eastern Grand Banks, which defines the progressive retroflection of the Labrador Current.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Ocean and Climate Change Institute (PF) and by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE-0550423 (PF and MM).
    Keywords: Labrador Current ; Subpolar gyre ; Freshwater ; North Atlantic Current ; Boundary current retroflection
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 19 (2006): 5100–5121, doi:10.1175/JCLI3902.1.
    Description: Three interrelated climate phenomena are at the center of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Atlantic research: tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). These phenomena produce a myriad of impacts on society and the environment on seasonal, interannual, and longer time scales through variability manifest as coherent fluctuations in ocean and land temperature, rainfall, and extreme events. Improved understanding of this variability is essential for assessing the likely range of future climate fluctuations and the extent to which they may be predictable, as well as understanding the potential impact of human-induced climate change. CLIVAR is addressing these issues through prioritized and integrated plans for short-term and sustained observations, basin-scale reanalysis, and modeling and theoretical investigations of the coupled Atlantic climate system and its links to remote regions. In this paper, a brief review of the state of understanding of Atlantic climate variability and achievements to date is provided. Considerable discussion is given to future challenges related to building and sustaining observing systems, developing synthesis strategies to support understanding and attribution of observed change, understanding sources of predictability, and developing prediction systems in order to meet the scientific objectives of the CLIVAR Atlantic program.
    Keywords: Atlantic Ocean ; Climate prediction ; Variational studies ; Tropical variability ; North Atlantic Oscillation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-11
    Description: Also published as: Journal of Geophysical Research, 83(C2), 1978, 901–914
    Description: Expendable bathythermograph observations have revealed large cold core cyclonic current rings to the east of 60°W in a region that mechanical bathythermograph observations (Parker, 1971) indicated to be devoid of rings. As a class these rings are larger than typical Gulf Stream rings that form and drift west of 60°W. The typical diameter (15°C at 500 m) there is around 100 km, while the eastern Sargasso rings are 200 km and more in diameter. Several of these eastern rings were observed on each of four cruises in the northern Sargasso Sea in 1974 and 1975. The overall picture of the region east of 60°W obtained was a very noisy one, dominated by large‐diameter, large‐amplitude eddies. One of the eastern rings was seen in all four cruises and was observed to drift westward for over 730 km at an average speed of 4.4 km/d, starting at 56°30′W and 34°40′N and passing north of Bermuda. The character of the dissolved oxygen anomalies in the cores of the eastern rings suggests a possible formation region at the eastern end of the Sargasso Sea gyre, around 40°W. Hence the eastern rings may have already been a year old when first observed in November 1974. A single deep hydrographic section showed the center of the deep circulation to lie considerably further southwest than the near‐surface circulation center, although this could be a distortion due to a large seamount. Moored current meter data suggest a level of no motion within eastern rings at about 2000 m, giving a weak anticyclonic circulation of 4 × 106 m3/s below that level, compared with the 45 × 106 m3/s cyclonic circulation above 2000 m. On several occasions, smaller‐scale upward displacements of the thermal structure were seen at the sides of eastern rings. It is not known whether these represented interactions with smaller rings or some breakdown of the circular symmetry.
    Description: Th is work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under contract N000!4-74-C0262, NR083-004, and by the International Decade of Ocean Exploration, Office of the National Science Foundation, under grant OCE 75-03962.
    Keywords: Ocean circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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