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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A systematic search for mutations in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana that disrupt the spatial organization of the seedling by altering embryogenesis is described. Mutations in nine genes affect three different aspects of the body organization: apical–basal pattern along the single ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Arabidopsis ; GNOM gene ; Intragenic complementation ; Conserved regions ; Yeast YEC2 gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The GNOM gene is required for pattern formation along the main body axis of the embryo in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in the GNOM gene alter the asymmetric division of the zygote and interfere with the formation of distinct apical-basal regions in the developing embryo. We have isolated the GNOM gene by positional cloning, characterised its structure and determined the molecular lesions in mutant alleles. Although the predicted 163 kDa GNOM protein has a conserved domain in common with the yeast secretory protein Sec7p, it is most closely related in size and overall similarity to the product of the yeast YEC2 gene, which is not essential for cell viability. Four fully complementing gnom alleles carry missense mutations in conserved regions, seven partially complementing alleles have premature stop codon mutations and two non-complementing alleles have splice-site lesions. Our results suggest that the GNOM protein acts as a complex of identical subunits and that partial complementation may involve low levels of full-length protein generated by inefficient translational read-through.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Arabidopsis ; GNOM gene ; Intragenic complementation ; Conserved regions ; YeastYEC2 gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract TheGNOM gene is required for pattern formation along the main body axis of the embryo in the flowering plantArabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in theGNOM gene alter the asymmetric division of the zygote and interfere with the formation of distinct apical-basal regions in the developing embryo. We have isolated theGNOM gene by positional cloning, characterised its structure and determined the molecular lesions in mutant alleles. Although the predicted 163 kDa GNOM protein has a conserved domain in common with the yeast secretory protein Sec7p, it is most closely related in size and overall similarity to the product of the yeastYEC2 gene, which is not essential for cell viability. Four fully complementinggnom alleles carry missense mutations in conserved regions, seven partially complementing alleles have premature stop codon mutations and two non-complementing alleles have splice-site lesions. Our results suggest that the GNOM protein acts as a complex of identical subunits and that partial complementation may involve low levels of full-length protein generated by inefficient translational read-through.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant molecular biology 43 (2000), S. 719-733 
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Arabidopsis ; cytokinesis ; mutants ; phragmoplast ; vesicle trafficking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Higher plants have evolved specific mechanisms for partitioning the cytoplasm of dividing cells. In the predominant mode of phragmoplast-assisted cytokinesis, a cell wall and flanking plasma membranes are made de novo from a transient membrane compartment, the cell plate, which in turn forms by vesicle fusion from the centre to the periphery of the dividing cell. Other modes of cytokinesis appear to occur in meiotic cells and developing gametophytes. Here we review recent progress in the analysis of plant cytokinesis, focusing on genetic studies in Arabidopsis which are beginning to identify structural and regulatory components of phragmoplast-assisted cytokinesis. Two classes of mutations have been described. In one class, the defects appear to be confined to cell plate formation, suggesting that the execution of cytokinesis is specifically affected. Mutations in the other class display more general defects in cell division. We also discuss possible roles of proteins that have been localised in cytokinetic cells but not characterised genetically. Finally, mutations affecting meiotic or gametophytic cell divisions suggest that mechanistically different modes of cytokinesis occur in higher plants.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biologie in unserer Zeit 29 (1999), S. 4-4 
    ISSN: 0045-205X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Nidogen/entactin is a Mr = 150,000 glycoprotein which is present within basement membranes in a noncovalent stable complex with laminin. We have studied the effects of nidogen/entactin complexed or not with laminin on attachment, spreading, and functions of adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Freshly isolated hepatocytes attached on either recombinant or EHS-derived nidogen, although to a lesser extent than on laminin/nidogen complex, laminin, and E8 and P1 fragments of laminin. Hepatocytes bound on a nidogen fragment bearing the N-terminal and rod-like domains but not on either the N-terminal globules or the rod-like domain which contains a RGD sequence. Attachment of hepatocytes on nidogen and laminin/nidogen complex was inhibited by anti-β 1 integrin antibodies. Hepatocytes remained rounded on nidogen and laminin, whereas they rapidly spread on laminin/nidogen complex and collagen IV. Nidogen, laminin, and laminin/nidogen complex transiently maintained high steady-state albumin mRNA levels in cultured hepatocytes, but a decrease in albumin mRNA content was observed after 24 h, independently of the substrates. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide treatment indicated that the transient effect of these substrates on albumin expression was related to post-transcriptional mechanisms. Laminin B2 mRNAs were not detectable in freshly isolated hepatocytes but were expressed in 4 h hepatocyte cultures. After 24 h, a dramatic increase in the steady-state level of laminin B2 mRNA was found in hepatocytes cultured on nidogen and laminin/nidogen complex. This effect was slightly prevented in hepatocytes plated on laminin. These results show that interactions of hepatocytes with nidogen/entactin in vitro result only in a transient modulation of hepatocyte functions. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biologie in unserer Zeit 28 (1998), S. 223-223 
    ISSN: 0045-205X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] For the targetted deletion of the α7-integrin gene, we replaced 1 kb of genomic sequence, including the part of exon 1 that encodes its signal sequence, and the first 107 bp of the mature protein12, with a phosphoglycerate-kinase–neomycin (PGK-neo) cassette by homologous recombination ...
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