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  • 1
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Paleoclimate ; 3D visualization ; Milankovitch cycles ; Orbital models ; Equatorial Pacific ; Paleoceanography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Recent developments in continuous core-logging techniques now permit us to recover the high-resolution time series necessary for the detailed spectral analyses of paleoclimatic proxy records. When applied to long records recovered by scientific drilling (5–10 Ma) they enable us to look at the long-term history and evolution of the ocean's response to orbital forcing. A serious limitation in these studies is the need to display the complex, multidimensional spatial and temporal interactions of the ocean-climate system in an easily comprehensible manner. We have addressed this issue by developing a series 3D visualization tools which permit visualization of the role of the orbital parameters in determining the latitudinal variation of insolation as well as the interactive exploration of multidimensional data sets. The ORBITS tool allows us to visualize the effect of orbital eccentricity, precession, and tilt on the latitudinal distribution of insolation on the earth at the solstices and the equinoxes for any time over the past 5 Ma (for Berger's orbital model) or 10 Ma (for Laskar's orbital model). The effect of the orbital parameters on insolation can be viewed individually, in pairs, or all three together. By moving the model steadily through time, the rate at which orbitally induced changes in insolation occur can also be visualized. To look at the ocean's response to orbital forcing we take the long time series generated from our paleoclimatic proxies and calculate their spectrum over a fixed, but sliding, time window. To view the complex multidimensional relationships found in these evolutionary spectral analyses, we use another interactive 3D data exploration tool developed at the University of New Brunswick (Canada). This tool (FLEDERMAUS) uses a six-degrees-of-freedom input device (BAT) and a series of software modules for color coding, shading, and rendering complex data sets, to allow the user to interactively "fly" through the multidimensional data. Through the use of color, texture, and 3D position, as many as six or seven variables can be explored in a simple and intuitive manner. With special liquid-crystal-display glasses, the scene can be viewed in true "stereo." We use these tools to explore the relationship between orbital forcing and the response of the benthic isotope and calcium carbonate record at ODP Site 846 (90°W and 5°S) This analysis shows an equatorial Pacific carbonate record which has a large component of linear response to tilt, but little linear response to precession. There is a major shift in response, from a carbonate-dominated response to an isotope (ice volume)-dominated response at approximately 4.5 Ma, and as expected, there is a large nonlinear response at the lower frequencies (400 and 100 kyr) during the past 800 kyr to 1 Ma
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Multibeam ; sediment classification ; seabed backscatter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Hydrographic quality bathymetry and quantitative acoustic backscatter data are now being acquired in shallow water on a routine basis using high frequency multibeam sonars. The data provided by these systems produce hitherto unobtainable information about geomorphology and seafloor geologic processes in the coastal zone and on the continental shelf. Before one can use the multibeam data for hydrography or quantitative acoustic backscatter studies, however, it is essential to be able to correct for systematic errors in the data. For bathymetric data, artifacts common to deep-water systems (roll, refraction, positioning) need to be corrected. In addition, the potentially far greater effects of tides, heave, vessel lift/squat, antenna motion and internal time delays become of increasing importance in shallower water. Such artifacts now cause greater errors in hydrographic data quality than bottom detection. Many of these artifacts are a result of imperfect motion sensing, however, new methods such as differential GPS hold great potential for resolving such limitations. For backscatter data, while the system response is well characterised, significant post processing is required to remove residual effects of imaging geometry, gain adjustments and water column effects. With the removal of these system artifacts and the establishment of a calibrated test site in intertidal regions (where the seabed may be intimately examined by eye) one can build up a sediment classification scheme for routine regional seafloor identification. When properly processed, high frequency multibeam sonar data can provide a view of seafloor geology and geomorphology at resolutions of as little as a few decimetres. Specific applications include quantitative estimation of sediment transport rates in large-scale sediment waves, volume effects of iceberg scouring, extent and style of seafloor mass-wasting and delineation of structural trends in bedrock. In addition, the imagery potentially provides a means of quantitative classification of seafloor lithology, allowing sedimentologists the ability to examine spatial distributions of seabed sediment type without resorting to subjective estimation or prohibitively expensive bottom-sampling programs. Using Simrad EM100 and EM1000 sonars as an example, this paper illustrates the nature and scale of possible artifacts, the necessary post-processing steps and shows specific applications of these sonars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Paleoclimate ; 3D visualization ; Milankovitch cycles ; Orbital models ; Equatorial Pacific ; Paleoceanography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Recent developments in continuous core-logging techniques now permit us to recover the high-resolution time series necessary for the detailed spectral analyses of paleoclimatic proxy records. When applied to long records recovered by scientific drilling (5–10 Ma) they enable us to look at the long-term history and evolution of the ocean’s response to orbital forcing. A serious limitation in these studies is the need to display the complex, multidimensional spatial and temporal interactions of the ocean-climate system in an easily comprehensible manner. We have addressed this issue by developing a series 3D visualization tools which permit visualization of the role of the orbital parameters in determining the latitudinal variation of insolation as well as the interactive exploration of multidimensional data sets. The ORBITS tool allows us to visualize the effect of orbital eccentricity, precession, and tilt on the latitudinal distribution of insolation on the earth at the solstices and the equinoxes for any time over the past 5 Ma (for Berger’s orbital model) or 10 Ma (for Laskar’s orbital model). The effect of the orbital parameters on insolation can be viewed individually, in pairs, or all three together. By moving the model steadily through time, the rate at which orbitally induced changes in insolation occur can also be visualized. To look at the ocean’s response to orbital forcing we take the long time series generated from our paleoclimatic proxies and calculate their spectrum over a fixed, but sliding, time window. To view the complex multidimensional relationships found in these evolutionary spectral analyses, we use another interactive 3D data exploration tool developed at the University of New Brunswick (Canada). This tool (FLEDERMAUS) uses a six-degrees-of-freedom input device (BAT) and a series of software modules for color coding, shading, and rendering complex data sets, to allow the user to interactively “fly” through the multidimensional data. Through the use of color, texture, and 3D position, as many as six or seven variables can be explored in a simple and intuitive manner. With special liquid-crystal-display glasses, the scene can be viewed in true “stereo.” We use these tools to explore the relationship between orbital forcing and the response of the benthic isotope and calcium carbonate record at ODP Site 846 (90°W and 5°S) This analysis shows an equatorial Pacific carbonate record which has a large component of linear response to tilt, but little linear response to precession. There is a major shift in response, from a carbonate-dominated response to an isotope (ice volume)-dominated response at approximately 4.5 Ma, and as expected, there is a large nonlinear response at the lower frequencies (400 and 100 kyr) during the past 800 kyr to 1 Ma
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Daily and monthly-based water balance computations are made for areas with climates ranging from humid (Coshocton, Ohio) through Mediterranean (Watsonville, California) and semi-arid (Dodge City, Kansas) to arid conditions (Tucson, Arizona). Monthly procedures lead to an underestimate of observed mean annual runoff by 14% in Coshocton, 59% in Tucson, and an overestimate by 9% in Watsonville. Daily balance calculations increase model accuracy. The improvement in runoff estimates by using the daily method is most significant for arid climates. Daily-monthly departures are greater in the semi-arid and arid areas than in the humid and Mediterranean areas. In terms of mean annual runoff, the difference between monthly estimates and daily estimates is 42.5% in arid Tucson, 58.2% in semi-arid Dodge City, but only 8.9% in humid Coshocton and 5.6% in Mediterranean Watsonville. The daily-monthly departures in soil moisture estimates are generally less than 10% in the humid and Mediterranean climates, but well above 50% in most months in the arid and semi-arid climates. Regression analysis indicates the daily-monthly difference in moisture surplus estimates correlates well with the amount of storm clustering within a month. Monthly computations depart increasingly from daily computations as storm clustering increases. The hydrological impacts of changes in storm clustering are studied by forcing the water balance model with daily precipitation sequences based on hypothetical storm scenarios. Total annual moisture surplus tends to increase with increased storm clustering. In the arid and semi-arid climates, the differences between the most and least clustering scenarios equal 35% up to 60% of surplus water generated by normal storms. They are about 20% in the cases of the humid and Mediterranean climates. These results suggest future potential changes in climatic variability such as storm delivery patterns can have significant impacts on water resource availability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; seafloor spreading ; rift valley ; oceanic crust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract High-resolution Sea Beam bathymetry and Sea MARC I side scan sonar data have been obtained in the MARK area, a 100-km-long portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley south of the Kane Fracture Zone. These data reveal a surprisingly complex rift valley structure that is composed of two distinct spreading cells which overlap to create a small, zero-offset transform or discordant zone. The northern spreading cell consists of a magmatically robust, active ridge segment 40–50 km in length that extends from the eastern Kane ridge-transform intersection south to about 23°12′ N. The rift valley in this area is dominated by a large constructional volcanic ridge that creates 200–500 m of relief and is associated with high-temperature hydrothermal activity. The southern spreading cell is characterized by a NNE-trending band of small (50–200 m high), conical volcanos that are built upon relatively old, fissured and sediment-covered lavas, and which in some cases are themselves fissured and faulted. This cell appears to be in a predominantly extensional phase with only small, isolated eruptions. These two spreading cells overlap in an anomalous zone between 23°05′ N and 23°17′ N that lacks a well-developed rift valley or neovolcanic zone, and may represent a slow-spreading ridge analogue to the overlapping spreading centers found at the East Pacific Rise. Despite the complexity of the MARK area, volcanic and tectonic activity appears to be confined to the 10–17 km wide rift valley floor. Block faulting along near-vertical, small-offset normal faults, accompanied by minor amounts of back-tilting (generally less than 5°), begins within a few km of the ridge axis and is largely completed by the time the crust is transported up into the rift valley walls. Features that appear to be constructional volcanic ridges formed in the median valley are preserved largely intact in the rift mountains. Mass-wasting and gullying of scarp faces, and sedimentation which buries low-relief seafloor features, are the major geological processes occurring outside of the rift valley. The morphological and structural heterogeneity within the MARK rift valley and in the flanking rift mountains documented in this study are largely the product of two spreading cells that evolve independently to the interplay between extensional tectonism and episodic variations in magma production rates.
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 37572 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 248 data points
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 186 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 184 data points
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 35728 data points
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