The Simons Observatory (SO) is a ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment sited on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in Chile that promises to provide breakthrough discoveries in fundamental physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Supported by the Simons Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and with contributions from collaborating institutions, SO will see first light in 2021 and start a five year survey in 2022. SO has 287 collaborators from 12 countries and 53 institutions, including 85 students and 90 postdocs. The SO experiment in its currently funded form (SO-Nominal) consists of three 0.4 m Small Aperture Telescopes (SATs) and one 6 m Large Aperture Telescope (LAT). Optimized for minimizing systematic errors in polarization measurements at large angular scales, the SATs will perform a deep, degree-scale survey of 10% of the sky to search for the signature of primordial gravitational waves. The LAT will survey 40% of the sky with arc-minute resolution. These observations will measure (or limit) the sum of neutrino masses, search for light relics, measure the early behavior of Dark Energy, and refine our understanding of the intergalactic medium, clusters and the role of feedback in galaxy formation. With up to ten times the sensitivity and five times the angular resolution of the Planck satellite, and roughly an order of magnitude increase in mapping speed over currently operating (Stage 3) experiments, SO will measure the CMB temperature and polarization fluctuations to exquisite precision in six frequency bands from 27 to 280 GHz. SO will rapidly advance CMB science while informing the design of future observatories such as CMB-S4. Construction of SO-Nominal is fully funded, and operations and data analysis are funded for part of the planned five-year observations. We will seek federal funding to complete the observations and analysis of SO-Nominal, at the $25M level. The SO has a low risk and cost efficient upgrade path the 6 m LAT can accommodate almost twice the baseline number of detectors and the SATs can be duplicated at low cost. We will seek funding at the $75M level for an expansion of the SO (SO-Enhanced) that fills the remaining focal plane in the LAT, adds three SATs, and extends operations by five years, substantially improving our science return. By this time SO may be operating as part of the larger CMB-S4 project. This white paper summarizes and extends material presented in, which describes the science goals of SO-Nominal, and which describe the instrument design.