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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: Didelphidae ; FISH ; karyotype evolution ; marsupials ; (T2AG3)ntelomeric sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It has been suggested that the karyotype of the marsupials derived from a low diploid number (2n = 14) which originated, through fissions of biarmed chromosomes, the karyotypes with a higher 2n. The telomeric sequence (T2AG3)nwas in situhybridized to the chromosomes of Gracilinanus microtarsusand G. emiliae, Micoureus demeraraeand Marmosa murina, species with 2n = 14, in Monodelphissp., M. domestica, M. kunsiand M. brevicaudatawith 2n = 18, and in Lutreolina crassicaudata, Didelphis albiventris, Chironectes minimus, Philander opossumand P. frenata, all of them with 2n = 22. The probe hybridization occurred in the telomeric regions of both arms, short and long, of all chromosomes of the complement of all individuals of all species analysed. However, in some pairs of the karyotypes of Gracilinanus microtarsusand Micoureus demerarae(with 2n = 14), and in Monodelphissp., M. domestica, M. kunsiand M. brevicaudata(2n = 18) ectopic signs of hybridization were detected proximal to the centromeres, suggesting the retention of this telomeric sequence in the centromeric regions of some chromosomes of these species. Based on these results, it is proposed that the karyotype of marsupials evolved from a 2n = 22 to a 2n = 14, by means of chromosomal fusions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The G- and C-banded karyotype ofHolochilus brasiliensis collected in central Brazil (2n=55, AN=56, acrocentric X and Y) can be regarded as the most representative of the ancestral form of the genus.H. magnus (2n=52, AN=58, acrocentric X and Y) andH. brasiliensis vulpinus (2n=40, AN=56), both living in southern Brazil, would be in different phases of chromosome number reduction due to centric fusions.H. magnus, in addition, shows an X of variable morphology and a metacentric Y. This fact, coupled with its distinct morphology and restricted distribution, suggests that it may represent a distinct trend in the genus' main evolutionary line.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chromosomes were analyzed in 91 specimens ofNectomys squamipes, collected in three distinct geographic regions of Brazil. Chromosomal polymorphism due to supernumerary chromosomes, Robertsonian rearrangement and variation of sex chromosomes is reported. Samples collected in the northeastern region had 2n=52, FN=52; 2n=53, FN=54; 2n=54, FN=56; 2n=55, FN=56; 2n=56, FN=56; 2n=57, FN=57. The specimens from the southeastern and southern regions showed 2n=55, FN=56; 2n=56, FN=56; 2n=57, FN=58; 2n=58, FN=60; 2n=59, FN=62. Seven different types of supernumeraries were observed. These vary in size, morphology and C-banding characteristics. The Brazilian populations ofNectomys squamipes are composed of at least two basic entities, one with 2n=52 and its increasing series up to 2n=55, the other with 2n=56, increasing to 2n=59. Both entities are characterized by variation from 0 to 3 supernumeraries. The X and Y chromosomes present polymorphisms in terms of the size, shape as well as the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: oryzomyine ; Thomasomyine ; DNA microsatellite ; heterologous amplification ; rodent
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Eleven heterologous primers were investigated in 119 individuals of 11 species of rodents of the Oryzomyine and Thomasomyine groups. The animals were collected at four sites of the “Cerrado,” a dryland biome located on the Brazilian Plateau, all of them being karyotyped and taxonomically allocated according to the karyotype. Four of these primers, R47, R65, R75 (from Rattus), and ATP (from Mus) cross-amplified in at least one of these taxa, giving products of seven, nine, one, and three bands, respectively. These values are of the same order as others obtained when heterologous primers were amplified in other orders of mammals. Of the 20 products amplified in these two rodent groups by these four primers, only 7 of the bands were seen in a heteromorphic state (one individual presenting two bands), in two species (Rhipidomys aff. leucodactylus and Oryzomys megacephalus). The others occurred as monomorphic bands.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: chromosomes ; fluorochromes ; heterochromatin ; primates ; restriction enzyme banding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The current classification of genus Aotus includes nine species, four of which occur above the Amazon River and five below it. The position of several of these taxa as a valid species has been questioned. Recently, we described the chromosomal constitution of a population in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, whose karyotype typically presented a considerable accumulation of constitutive heterochromatin. To best characterize these heterochromatins, in this work we subjected the metaphases of these animals to banding using AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, RsaI, DdeI, MboI and MspI restriction enzymes and CMA3 and DAPI fluorochromes. The banded metaphases were also submitted to sequential C-banding. RsaI, DdeI and MboI enzymes showed, in all chromosomes, a banding pattern of C type, similar to that obtained using barium hydroxide. This banding was also seen with AluI, HinfI and MspI, but with reduction or elimination of the C-bands in the chromosome pairs 1, 3--7 and 9. MspI also reduced the C-band of pairs 11, 16--21 and 23. HaeIII induced intermediate bands between G and C. Considering the data of the different bands produced, it was possible to characterize at least three distinct types of constitutive heterochromatin in Aotus from Rondonia: (a) centromeric bands, (b) bands of the heterochromatic short arms and (c) interstitial bands.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 27 (1975), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chromosome counts and a search for structural abnormalities were performed in cultured leukocytes from 60 elderly subjects (ages 62–96) and 60 controls (ages 10–13). A total of 3900 cells were examined, 3600 in 3-day cultures and 300 in cultivations maintained for 2 days. Our results and those obtained by other investigators indicate clearly that there is an increase in the level of aneuploidy and of structural abnormalities in the blood of aged persons. There is an excess of missing C-group chromosomes in elderly females, but no consistent preferential loss was observed among the males. In contrast with two previous studies, we found a significant decrease of aneuploid cells in 3-day cultures, as compared to those cultivated for 2 days only.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 46 Personen mit Symptomen der Gonadendysgenesie wurden untersucht. 16 von ihnen waren 45,XO und zeigten Symptome des Turner-Syndroms. 15 erwiesen sich als Chromosomenmosaiken; 12 von ihnen zeigten ebenfalls das Turner-Syndrom, 2 zeigten eine gemischte Gonadendysgenesie, während 1 Patient ein Gonadoblastom aufwies. Außerdem wurden 2 Fälle von einer Gonadendysgenesie und 13 Patienten mit normalem Karyotyp beobachtet. Die klinischen und genealogischen Daten von diesen Patienten und ihren Familien wurden mit denen aus 26 Literaturserien verglichen. Außer den Störungen der sexuellen Entwicklung sind die folgenden Mißbildungen häufig: Kleinwuchs, abnorme Nägel, niedrige Haargrenze, Pigmentnaevi, schildförmiger Torax, kurzer Hals, Cubitus valgus. Im allgemeinen zeigen Personen mit 45,XO-Karyotypen ein schwereres klinisches Bild als Mosaiken. Unter den Geschwistern der Patienten finden sich Zwillinge häufiger als erwartet; das gilt auch für 3 der 5 anderen Serien, für die Daten verfügbar sind.
    Notes: Summary 46 individuals, ascertained due to gonadal dysgenesis symptoms, were studied. 16 of them were 45, X and showed characteristics of Turner's syndrome. 15 proved to be chromosome mosaics and presented Turner's syndrome (12 cases), mixed gonadal dysgenesis (2) and gonadoblastoma (1). There were also 2 cases of pure gonadal dysgenesis and 13 patients with normal karyotypes. The clinical and genealogical data obtained from these individuals and their families were compared with 26 other series reported in the literature. Common malformations besides those related to sexual development are: short stature, abnormal nails, low implantation of hair, pigmented naevi, shield chest, short neck and cubitus valgus. Persons with 45,X karyotypes generally presented a more severe clinical picture than mosaics. The prevalence of twins is higher than expected among the patients' sibs in the cases reported here and in 3 of the 5 other series for which data are available.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lymphocyte cultures of 120 normal persons evenly distributed in relation to sex and age groups were studied. A total of 3900 cells were examined, 3600 in 3-day cultures and 300 in cultivations maintained for 2 days. In both age groups (10–13; 62–96 years) men showed higher numbers of satellites per cell but less cells with D/G associations. Older subjects presented a lower number of cells with D satellites and acrocentric associations; the pattern of these associations, however, did not seem to vary with age. The mean number of associations per cell decreased significantly in 3-day as opposed to 2-day cultures.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Five low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs: TaqI, intron 4; HincII, exon 12; AvaII, exon 13; MspI and NcoI, exon 18) were investigated in 131 individuals from five Brazilian Indian tribes. All markers were polymorphic in this ethnic group. In the whole sample of Amerindians, 13 (41%) of the 32 expected haplotypes were identified, but only three were shared by all tribes. The Xavante, Suruí, Zoró, and Gavião tribes, who had been studied for anthropometry, were grouped according to their genotypes, and the corresponding mean values were examined. Significant associations were observed between HincII *H–, AvaII *A+, MspI *M–, and NcoI *N+ and the body mass index (BMI), triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and the arm fat index (AFI). Haplotypes were derived for these four RFLPs, and (*H–/*A+/*M–/*N+) haplotype carriers were compared with noncarriers of this haplotype with equally significant results for the three parameters (BMI, P=0.021; skinfold thickness, P〈0.001; AFI, P=0.005). These results suggest that the LDLR gene has some influence over adipose tissue deposition.
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