Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
Abstract The precipitation chemistry in northern Japan, especially Hokkaido, has been investigated since 1982. This area has often been found to have high concentrations of alkaline road dust (asphalt dust) in the air, caused by the use of studded tires during the winter. It is well known that the composition of precipitation in these areas is often dominated by asphalt dust including calcium bicarbonate. However, recently the concentration of asphalt dust in the air has decreased owing to a ban on the use of studded tires. Simultaneously, in precipitation, the lowering of pH values and the increase of hydrogen ion depositions have been occurring owing to the decrease of non-sea-salt calcium ions (nss-Ca2+) concentrations and depositions derived from asphalt dust. In addition, we found that a decrease of nss-Ca2+ firstly leads to a decrease of bicarbonate ions (HCO3 −), the counter ion to nss-Ca2+ in asphalt dust. Therefore, the increase of H+ concentrations and depositions was great in comparison with the decrease of nss-Ca2+ concentrations and depositions in areas where the HCO3 −concentrations, varied by pH, and depositions had been low. Furthermore, this variation was mainly observed in the ionic composition of snow cover and snowfall at sites along the Japan Sea in northern Japan during winter. In this area, the Acid Shock effect may become a serious problem from the decline of pH values in melting snow. Moreover, we found that ammonium ions and non-sea-salt sulfate ions depositions have also been decreasing in response to a decrease of nss-Ca2+ depositions, derived from asphalt dust. It seems that this phenomenon is caused by the decrease of asphalt dust concentrations in the air.
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