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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Celeste-1 is a lab-scale hot cell intended for R&D work in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements. The studies are concerned with head-end, first separation cycle by Purex Process using mini mixer-settlers and development of analytical techniques. The analytical monitoring for process control purposes is based on several off-line techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, potentiometric titration, α-and γ-spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, density measurement and gas chromatography. The analytical treatment takes place in a shielded working place analytical hot cell, glove boxes and hoods and some final measurements are made in the associated analytical laboratory. A pneumatic system is used for transporting analytical samples. All analytical procedures are ready and in operation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy ; Electrical impedance ; Equivalent circuit ; Four-electrode method ; Stage of disability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Electrical impedances were measured, at a range of frequencies from 2 to 200 kHz, in the lower limbs of nine patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 12 normal subjects. The specific admittance was calculated from the impedance, based on the assumption that the shape of the part of the limb measured is a truncated cone. Curve-fitting to the admittance locus on the complex plane gave the intracellular and extracellular resistances and the membrane capacitance. The intracellular resistance was higher and the membrane capacitance was lower in the patients than in the normal subjects. The membrane capacitance in the normal subjects increased with age. In the patients, the membrane capacitance decreased, and the intracellular resistance increased with the stage of disability, which was assessed by a physician. These experimental results agree well with the theoretical explanation, which uses simplified spherical models to represent living tissue.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A study for separation and sequential recovery of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solutions by extraction chromatography using tributyl phosphate (TBP)/Amberlite XAD7 as stationary phase is presented. Distribution ratios of actinides, lanthanides and fission products were obtained. The column capacity was investigated and actinides retention conditions were established. Finally, U-Pu sequential separation was studied as well as the U and Pu recovery yields from nitric solutions containing Am/fission products were determined.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In the actinide separation process using TBP as extractant, hydrolytic and radiolytic reactions cause a gradual decomposition of the extractant, resulting in the formation of degradation products which can affect process performance adversely. The TBP diluent has to be cleaned from these degradation products before it is reused. This paper deals with a procedure for solvent cleanup, using a fourstage continuous contactor for increasing the scrubbing efficiency.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This work deals with the extraction behavior of neptunium in a high acid Purex Process. The composition of PWR fuel type with 3.2% enrichment, 500 MWd/t burn-up and 100 d cooling time was considered. Two consecutive cold runs were performed in a mock-up facility at IPEN-CNEN/SP with simulated feed solutions containing: 3M HNO3; 1M U; 455 μg237Np labeled with239Np; 15 mg Zr l−1, 12 mg Ce l−1, 7 mg Ru l−1 and 13 mg Mo l−1 traced with active isotopes95Zr,141Ce,103Ru and99Mo as FP. A 30 vol% TBP/n-dodecane was used as solvent. Countercurrent experiments were carried out using two 16 stages plexiglass mixer-settlers, at 25°C, during 21 h continuous operation, with O/A ratio of 2 in the extraction section and 9 and 13 in the 1st and 2nd scrubbing sections, respectively. For a 65% organic loading, ca. 77% of neptunium remains in the waste stream, without any Np valence adjustment.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract CMPO/TBP sorbed on Amberlite XAD7 resin was used for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from nitric acid solutions by extraction chromatography. The distribution ratios of actinides and lanthanide fission products (Ce, Eu) as a function of acid concentration and some complexing agents were determined. In strong HNO3 medium (〉1 mol/l) the tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides as well as the lanthanides have shown great affinity for the CMPO/TBP/XAD7 sorbent. The same behavior was found in HCl medium except for trivalent actinides and lanthanides which show lower distribution values in the same acid range. The effect of some complexing agents as DTPA and ammonium oxalate were also investigated. In DTPA only hexavalent actinides showed higher distribution value. On the basis of these differences, an alternative procedure for actinide-lanthanide separation and actinides from each other is proposed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Carrier-free99mTcO4 − eluated from clinical99Mo/99mTc generators was examined to determine its specific activity. The observed specific activity was found to be always lower than the calculated value based on the99Mo−99mTc−99Tc decay scheme data. These results could be explained in terms of existence of excess Tc loaded onto generator column.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A study of Pu recovery at trace level from U solutions by ion exchange technique is presented. Plutonium retention 〉99.5% onto strong anionic resin, AG-X8, from nitric acid solutions and a 92% recovery using 0.4M HNO3 at 60°C as eluent, were obtained. Uranium interference in Pu sorption from mixed U/Pu nitrate solutions with low U/Pu ratio (∼25) was not verified. However, for high U/Pu ratio solutions (∼10000), uranium interference in Pu retention on the resin, decreases to 59%. Selecting the loading conditions and using AG-X4 resin, 99% Pu retention was achieved. The Pu product is still contaminated with U and another purification cycle is recomended. A scheme for U/Pu first cycle separation is proposed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antigen detection ; Capsular polysaccharide ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Latex agglutination assay ; Pulmonary cryptococcosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two different kits for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis were evaluated. The Eiken test (the Eiken Co., Tokyo), which uses pronase for pretreatment of serum, was compared with the Crypto-LA test (International Biological Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ), which did not use pronase prior to testing. Cryptococcal antigen was detected in 21 of 23 patients (91%) with the Eiken test and in only 10 of 23 patients (43%) with the Crypto-LA test (p〈0.01 by Mcnemar test). However, the sensitivity of two tests was identical without use of pronase, as both tests could detect as little as 104 cells/ml ofCryptococcus neoformans and 10 ng/ml of capsular polysaccharide ofC. neoformans. In those serum specimens for which both tests were positive, titers were much higher for the Eiken test, but there was a statistically significant correlation between the two tests (coefficient correlation 0.79,p〈0.01). Cryptococcal antigen titer levels measured by the Eiken test correlated well with clinical courses. There was one false-positive reaction among 82 sera of non-cryptococcal patients. Pronase enhanced the sensitivity of the Eiken test, which appeared to be useful in patients with pulmonary cryptococcal disease, and its use may prevent unneeded lung biopsies.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper deals with donor, acceptor-codoped (Ba0.4Sr.6)TiO3 ceramics with distinct varistor characteristics at room temperature, which were prepared by single-step firing in air. The materials, with the Curie point at around −90 °C, exhibited a large PTCR (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity) effect of more than seven orders of magnitude in the temperature range −90 °C (the resistivity ρ ≈ 103 Ω · cm) to room temperature (ρ 〉 1010 Ω · cm). An apparent dielectric constant of 〉20000 and tan δ 〈 0.05 (at 100 kHz) were observed for the present materials at room temperature, and moreover, the materials exhibited nonlinear current-voltage characteristics with the nonlinear coefficient, α, in the range 7–12 and the varistor field, Ev, in the range 0.3–1.0 kV/cm. The value of α in the present materials increased systematically with increasing ρ in their PTCR temperature range. It has been found that there exists a close correlation between α and the grain-boundary potential barrier height, eφ, obtained from the ρ-T characteristic of the materials. An almost linear relationship was also found to exist between α and log Ev for the present materials.
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