Species diversity of aquaculture based on introduction of endemic and exotic species, for various object to aquaculture industry. AS FAO reports in 2012, about 558 different aquatic species have been used for aquaculture production. Among these, 130 marine fishes, 169 fresh water fishes, 45 species of migratory fishes, 62 crustacean, 35 aquatic plants, 4 aquatic products (pearl,), 98 invertebrates and finally 15 other aquatics included. Increasing of world aquaculture production depended on species diversity, and exotic species play the highest rank in this field. Aquaculture development program in Iran emphasized special attention on species diversity since last half century. Wide studies and researches devoted on biology, and exotic species. Iran aquaculture industry studied 27 different exotic species, and 28 endemic species for aquaculture development and sea ranching program. In addition, about 250 different ornamental aquatics, mainly non- native included in house- aquariums. Six different exotic species have the main aquaculture production in cold water, warm water and sea water environments. Rainbow trout is the main species in cold- water, while high valued endemic species of Caspian salmon has not any role in aqua culture production. In warm water fish group, chines carps and common carp are main species, but endemic species same as shirbot, Gattan, Benny and Schizotrox have not used in aquaculture production. Despite of wide researches on marine fishes of north and south sea, not endemic fishes included in aquaculture production. The new developing production of marine fish relied on non- native fish. Although specific duration of shrimp culture based on endemic species of Penaeus indicus, it is about of 10 years that shrimp production relied on exotic species of P.vannamei. In case of sturgeon fish, this new enterprise based on endemic species of Huso huso. Finally, the aquaculture industry of Iran same as most other countries relies on exotic species.
Monograph or Serial Issue