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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A series of metal β-diketonates were irradiated with bremsstrahlung of maximum energy of 50 MeV and the recoil behavior of7Be, formed from12C of ligands through12C(γ, αn)7Be reaction, was investigated.7Be nuclides thus formed were detected partially as central metal atoms of the complexes. Complex yields of7Be were compared and an anomalously high yield was observed in tris-acetylacetonatocobalt(III) [Co(acac)3].
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Various NaCl solutions containing traces of tellurium(IV) have been prepared. The effects of tellurium(IV) concentration and pH on the adsorption of tellurium(IV) on filter paper have been studied by filtration method. The effects of NaCl concentration, tellurium(IV) concentration and pH on the formation of a colloid have been also studied by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. It has been found that tellurium(IV), at concentrations below about 10−10M, in neutral NaCl solutions is adsorbed on filter paper and shows colloidal behaviour.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The solutions of carrier-free125mTe(VI) have been prepared by oxidizing125mTe(IV) with bromine. Using carrier-free125mTe(VI) as a tracer, the effects of pH, NaCl concentration, and tellurium(VI) concentration on the adsorption and colloidal properties of tellurium(VI) in NaCl solution have been studied. It has been found that traces of tellurium(VI) are adsorbed on filter paper and show colloidal behavior in the basic region. A method has been devised for the separation of carrier-free125mTe from its parent nuclide125Sb, based on the adsorption properties of125mTe(VI) in basic solutions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract NaCl solutions containing carrier-free125mTe(IV) and125mTe(VI) have been prepared. The effect of the presence of various substances on the colloidal behavior of125mTe in solution has been studied by ultracentrifugation. It has been found that phosphate, sulfide and oxalate ions which complex with various elements decrease the colloidal formation of125mTe. In order to estimate the size of colloidal particles, the NaCl solutions containing carrier-free125mTe have been microfiltered through membrane filters with various pore size.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The nuclear isomer 178Hfm2, expected to be the most promising candidate for the gamma-ray medium, is rather difficult to produce in large quantities. There are a few ways to create this isomer, such as the irradiation of 179Hf with high-energy neutrons through the (n,2n) reaction, the irradiation of 176Yb with high-energy α particles through the (α,2n) reaction, the irradiation of 181Ta with protons through the (p,2p2n) reaction. In some of these reaction schemes the isotopically pure target works better than the natural one from the viewpoint of spectroscopic purity, handling of radioactive materials and productivity. However, isotope separation of heavy elements for producing a precursor as a target material is difficult in terms of cost/effectiveness. The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) method is expected as the most efficient way compared with the normal electromagnetic separation method.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 68.35.Bs ; 71.25.Cx ; 73.20.Dx
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Two dimensional band structure is calculated for a triangular lattice of C60 molecules by using a mixed-basis approach in which wave functions are expanded with not only plane waves but also 1s and 2p atomic orbitals of carbon atoms. The present analysis modeling a charge transfer from Si dimers of the Si (100) surface suggests the existence of a small Fermi-surface. The resulting partial charge distribution is consistent with the recent STM observation of specific stripes, the direction of which is parallel to that of the topmost double bond of C60, regardless of the intermolecular interaction. It is concluded that the orientation of C60 on the Si surface is mainly determined by the direction of dimer arrays and not by the interaction between C60 molecules.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present ab initio calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs) at impurity sites in ionic crystals TiO2, Al2O3 and CaCO3. The electronic structure was calculated self-consistently by the KKR method in the framework of the local spin density approximation of the density functional theory. The system with a single impurity was simulated by the super cell method. It was found that EFGs for the transition metal impurities (Sc, Nb, Cd and Ta) in TiO2 were well reproduced by the calculations if the charge state of them in TiO2 was taken into account. The present method was applied to the determination of the implantation sites of N and O nuclei in TiO2. The calculation of EFGs at a Si impurity in Al2O3 and at Ca site in CaCO3 were used to derive the quadrupole moments of 27Si and 39Ca from their quadrupole coupling constants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Singly charged cations of silver atoms and clusters (Agn+, n=1,3,5,7,9) were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates at well-controlled, various collision energies. The total amount of Ag atoms remaining on the substrates after collision was quantified by measuring the Ag 3d5/2 photoelectron intensities. The collision energy dependence of the amount of deposited Ag atoms revealed that, for all the species, there are three distinct energy regions, for which soft landing, rebounding, or implantation is a dominant process, and that the energy ranges for the processes strongly depend on the cluster size. The deposition efficiency vs collision energy curve for each cluster is well fitted to that for Ag1, by considering the difference between the contact area of Ag1 with the surface and that of the cluster, reflecting the compactness of the clusters. Boundaries between the different deposition regimes for the clusters were less distinct than those for Ag1. Considering anisotropy in shape of a cluster, deposition efficiency around the implantation threshold was calculated, which well explains the indistinctness of the threshold observed in the experimental data. This supports the picture that the energy given to a unit surface area determines the collision process. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cationic antigens have been observed to bind with the negatively charged glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Using the cationic reagent polyethyleneimine (PEI), the distribution of glomerular anionic sites was evaluated ultrastructurally in the early stage (2 h-day 7) of cationic antigen mediated in-situ immune complex formation type glomerulonephritis (GN) in the rat. — Renal perfusion via the renal artery with 100 μg of cationized human IgG (pl〉9.5), followed by the i.v. injection of specific antibodies, led to an initial increase in urinary albumin excretion, subsequent massive globulinuria and the formation of numerous subepithelial deposits on day 7. — The most striking alteration in glomerular anionic sites was observed on the epithelial cell surface coat; the PEI deposition on the epithelial cell surface was almost identical to that in control glomeruli at 2 and 4 h after the induction of GN; thereafter, on day 7, a broad loss of anionic sites was obseryed on flattened epithelial foot processes. In contrast, fixed anionic sites of the laminae rarae of the GBM showed no apparent alterations in the distribution and number from 2 h to day 7 and did not disappear even in the lamina rara externa adjacent to subepithelial deposits. — These findings not only show that fixed anionic sites of the GBM, in contrast to the rapid decrease in those of the epithelial cell surface, are not completely neutralized or destroyed even in GN, in which cationic antigen participates in the in-situ formation of GBM-deposits. This also indicates that initial impairment of the charge-selective barrier of the GBM by the in-situ interaction between cationic antigen and antibody, is followed by the disfunction of the size-selective permselectivity of the GBM, ultimately causing massive proteinuria.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: furosemide ; respiratory failure ; furosemide glucuronide ; first-pass metabolism ; diuretic effect ; bioavailability ; food effect ; chronic treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The bioavailability and diuretic effect of furosemide 40 mg administered orally for at least 6 months have been compared in patients with chronic respiratory failure and in healthy controls. The mean urinary recovery of unchanged drug was 11.5 mg and 9.41 mg in 24 h after pre- and postprandial administration to 10 patients, whereas the recovery was 14.4 mg in 10 healthy subjects. The diuretic effect, in terms of urine flow and sodium ion excretion in the 6 h after administration, was also less in patients than in healthy subjects. This was ascribed to the lower bioavailability of furosemide in patients, based on the urinary recovery of unchanged drug, and not to a lower level of response to furosemide than in healthy subjects. The mean absolute bioavailability of furosemide in 6 patients was 41.3% and 63.4%, respectively, calculated from unchanged drug and total drug (unchanged plus glucuronide conjugate). Approximately 53.9% of the dose of furosemide was excreted as the glucuronide conjugate after oral administration, and 34.2% after i.v. injection in the 6 patients. In 3 of the 6 patients studied, a distinct first-pass effect for glucuronidation of furosemide was observed after oral administration. In another study, the mean glucuronide fraction recovered in 24-h urine was 20.7% and 7.3% (p〈0.01) in 38 patients and 12 healthy subjects, respectively. The fraction in urine was not affected by changing the dose of furosemide from 20 to 120 mg. The lower bioavailability in patients as compared to healthy subjects is ascribed to enhanced glucuronidation and incomplete drug absorption.
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