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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Given a set of comagmatic lavas of similar composition but varying crystallinity, a diagram can be constructed using only the modes of the phenocrysts that quantitively shows the sequence of crystallization. This is done by plotting the amount of each phenocryst against the total crystallinity or percentage of melt of the lava itself. A histogram of the total phenocryst content measures the probability of the magma to be erupted as lava. This eruption probability (P E ) is the product of the probability of finding the magma at any state of crystallinity (thermal probability, P T ) and the rheological probability (P R ) of the magma being physically able to erupt (i.e. P E =P T P R ). It is shown that P E is given by dX/dT, where X is the crystallinity of the magma as a function of temperature (T). Because crystal production is generally nonlinear—in most rocks it is step-like—P E is a bellshaped curve stradling the temperature at which the magma is one half crystallized. Near the liquidus it is most favorable rheologically for the magma to erupt. But the probability is small of sampling a magma near its liquidus, because it cools quickly there. It is maximum when there are high rates of crystal production, because it then cools slowly. As the crystallinity increases, it reaches a critical point of maximum packing (i.e. lowest porosity) around 50–60% crystals where it becomes rheologically impossible to erupt. The magma looses its potential to become a lava and it becomes a pluton. From a histogram of crystallinity and P T ,P R can be found. This technique, as well as the construction of the mode-crystallization (M-C) diagram, is illustrated using a set of Aleutian lavas. These lavas also show that the point of critical crystallinity decreases with increasing silica content of the lava. Because this critical crystallinity is much lower for granitic magmas, they are much more probable than basaltic magmas to become plutons. Beyond this point, granitic magmas can only erupt as ash flows. This correlation of critical crystallinity and silica content is used to show a method by which the viscosity of the magma can be estimated as a function of crystallinity. This variation is found to compare favorably with Roscoe's equation of the dependence of viscosity on the concentration of suspended solids. These results show that differentiation probably can not normally take place beyond this critical crystallinity. The extraction of melt beyond this critical point by filter pressing is unlikely because the assemblage dilates upon stressing. Only if the phenocrysts deform viscously can additional melt be extracted, and this can probably only occur with large (−30km) bodies.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Young volcanic rocks from different sections of the Aleutian Islands-Alaska Peninsula Arc have been measured for 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and some trace elements. We found the 143Nd/144Nd to be highly restricted in range (ɛ Nd=6 to 7) and low as compared to midocean ridge ba-salts (MORB). This indicates that the source of the Aleutian Arc magmas is different from MORB and remarkably isotopically homogeneous with respect to Nd. The range reported here for arc rocks is substantially smaller than found by other workers. However, the Sr isotope ratios vary considerably (ɛ Sr=−24 to −14). Those samples from small volcanic centers north of the main arc (second arc) are characterized by low ɛ Sr. Our data in combination with previous studies suggest that there are slight geochemical differences between discrete sections of the arc. The general uniformity of Nd isotope ratios are thought to be the surface expression of an efficient mixing or homogenization process beneath the arc plate, but which still causes a wide dispersion in Sr isotopic composition. To relate the arc rocks to the broader tectonic setting and to identify possible sources of arc magmas, measurements were done on volcanic and sedimentary rocks from the North Pacific/Bering Sea area. Alkali basalts from the back-arc islands St. George, Nunivak and St. Lawrence and alkali-rich tholeiites from the fore-arc have ɛ Nd=+4 to +9 and are correlated on the ɛ Sr-ɛ Nddiagram parallel to the mantle array but shifted to lower ɛ Sr. These samples are thought to be isotopically representative of the mantle transported to that region. A tholeiitic basalt from the Kamchatka Basin ocean floor (back-arc), however, yielded typical MORB values (ɛ Nd=10, ɛ Sr=−24). Composite sediment samples were made from DSDP cores in the Aleutian Abyssal Plain, Gulf of Alaska and the Alka Basin which represent mixtures of continentally and arc-derived materials. These composites have intermediate Nd isotopic (ɛ Nd= −2 and +2) and high Sr isotopic values (ɛ Sr=+9 and +37). These data show that possible source materials of the Aleutian Arc volcanics are isotopically different from and much more heterogeneous than the arc rocks themselves. On the basis of this study and of literature data, we developed a set of alternative models for volcanic arc magma generation, based on the restricted range in ɛ Nd and the wider range in ɛ Sr for arc rocks. Different isotopic and trace element characteristics found in different arcs or arc sections are explained by varying mixing proportions or concentrations in source materials. The basic observations require rather strict mixing ratios to obtain constant ɛ Nd. The preferred model is one where the melting of subducted oceanic crust is controlled by the amount of trapped sediment with the melting restricted to the upper part of the altered basaltic layer. Homogenization within the upper part of the oceanic crust is brought about by hydrothermal circulation attending dewatering of the slab during subduction and possibly some oxygen exchange of the magmas on ascent.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial and engineering chemistry 4 (1965), S. 129-133 
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order that sub-lithospheric density variations be revealed with the geoid, the regional geoid anomalies associated with bathymetric variations must first be removed. Spectral techniques were used to generate a synthetic geoid by filtering the residual bathymetry assuming an Airy-type isostatic compensation model. An unbiased estimated of the admittances show that for region under study, no single compensation mechanism will explain all of the power in the geoid. Nevertheless, because topographic features are mainly coherent with the geoid, to first order an isostationally compensated lithosphere cut by major E-W fracture zones accounts for most of the power in the high degree and other SEASAT geoid in the Pacific.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174155 , NASA-CR-174155
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from an additional 50 satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) passes were combined with earlier measurements of the high degree and order (n, m, 12) gravity in the central Pacific. A composite map was produced which shows good agreement with conventional GEM models. Data from the SEASAT altimeter was reduced and found to agree well with both the SST and the GEM fields. The maps are dominated especially in the east, by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Further comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkably close correlation with plate age. Each anomaly band is framed by those major fracture zones having large offsets. The regular spacing of these fractures seems to account for the fabric in the gravity fields. Other anomalies are accounted for by hot spots. The source of part of these anomalies is in the lithosphere itself. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantel without complete thermal equilibration is considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170593 , NASA-CR-170593 , E84-10025
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A large magnetic anomaly was recognized in satellite magnetometer data over the Central African Empire in central Africa. They named this anomaly the Bangui magnetic anomaly due to its location near the capital city of Bangui, C.A.E. Because large crustal magnetic anomalies are uncommon, the origin of this anomaly has provoked some interest. The area of the anomaly was visited to make ground magnetic measurements, geologic observations, and in-situ magnetic susceptibility measurements. Some rock samples were also collected and chemically analyzed. The results of these investigations are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-153260
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-27
    Description: Frost penetration increases upslope on barren, windswept bluffs in cold environments. Along the south shore of Lake Superior, near the brow of 100 m high bluffs it typically exceeds 5 m. Frost increases the shear strength of damp sand to a level comparable to that of concrete, making winter slopes highly stable despite undercutting by waves and ground-water sapping along the footslope. Sublimation of interparticle ice in the slope face increases with wind speed and lower vapor pressures. The cold and dry winter winds of Lake Superior ablate these slopes through loss of binding ice. Wind erosion rates, based on measurements of sand accumulation on the forest floor downwind of the brow, show most airborne sand falls out within several meters of the brow, forming a berm 1 to 3 m high after many years. The spatial pattern of sand deposition, however, varies considerably over distances of several hundred meters along the top bluffs in response to frost conditions and the build-up of gravel lag on the slope face, sand exposure from mass movements, and local aerodynamics of the crest slope. The formation of perched sand dunes in the Great Lakes region is clearly related to wind erosion of sand from high bluffs in winter. Broadly similar processes may operate on Mars.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Washington Rept. of Planetary Geol. Programs; p 171
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: A composite map produced by combining 90 passes of SST data show good agreement with conventional GEM models. The SEASAT altimeter data were deduced and found to agree with both the SST and GEM fields. The maps are dominated (especially in the east) by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkedly close correlation with plate age. Most anomalies in the east half of the Pacific could be partly caused by regional differences in plate age. The amplitude of these geoid or gravity anomalies caused by age differences should decrease with absolute plate age, and large anomalies (approximately 3 m) over old, smooth sea floor may indicate a further deeper source within or perhaps below the lithosphere. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantle without complete thermal equilibration was considered. A plume emanating from a buoyant layer 100 km thick and 10,000 times less viscous than the surrounding mantle should have a diameter of about 400 km and must ascend at about 10 cm/yr to arrive still anomalously hot in the uppermost mantle.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10020 , NASA-TM-87387 , NAS 1.15:87387
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract In spite of the voluminous basaltic volcanism on the island of Hawaii, rhyolite is not produced. Iceland, on the other hand, exhibits common rhyolitic volcanism amounting to some 10–12% of its surface rocks. This contrast is investigated using the fundamental igneous processes exhibited by sheet-like Hawaiian lava lakes and Shonkin Sag laccolith in Montana. Highly differentiated, residual melts normally reside within inwardly advancing solidification fronts and are generally inaccessible to eruptive processes. Only when a large initial phenocryst population is present, from which a thick basal cumulate can rapidly form, is it possible to supply highly differentiated melt into the active (i.e., eruptable) portion of the magma chamber. Although there is protracted control of differentiation at Hawaii by settling of olivine, further differentiation occurs within the solidification fronts. Only by repeated transport and holding is it possible to differentiate beyond the critical composition of the leading edge of the solidification front (∼ 7% MgO and 51.5% SiO2). Crystal size distributions (CSDs) for Hawaii and Shonkin Sag are used to demonstrate the inferred physical and chemical processes of solidification, including the kinetics of crystallization. A ubiquitous feature of these basaltic bodies is the formation of coarse veins and segregations of refined melt and granophyres within the upper solidification front. It is this fundamental bimodal feature which is the key to understanding Icelandic silicic volcanism. Rhyolites in Iceland occur mainly as a bimodal population with basalts associated with central volcanoes. Rhyolites, granophyres, and felsites are common, with the intrusions often being layered. Ash flows and true granite-like intrusions are rare. The voluminous silicic lavas at Torfajokull central volcano contain disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages. This, and the disagreement in oxygen isotopic values between rhyolites and basalts, reflects extensive partial melting of the heterogeneous basaltic crust of Iceland to produce these rhyolites. Relatively small, chemically distinct, and spatially intimate silicic bodies are formed by concentrating granophyric segregations from earlier cycles of solidification. This process is also reflected in the layered granophyric instrusion of Slaufrudalur in eastern Iceland. Slaufrudalur is an unvented subterranean caldera, equivalent in igneous processes and style to the subaerial Torfajokull caldera. Hawaii is dominated by fractional crystallization due to crystal settling and does not produce rhyolite. Iceland's tectonics allow continual and extensive reprocessing of thin, hot basaltic crust which produces rhyolite by concentrating original silicic segregations and veins and by partially melting intermediate extrusives, which have subsided deep into the crust.
    Abstract: Résumé En dépit du volcanisme basaltique volumineux des îles Hawaï, il n'y existe pas de rhyolite. En Islande, par contre, le volcanisme rhyolitique est commun et représente 10 à 12% des roches de la surface. Ce contraste est examiné sur la base des processus ignés fondamentaux présentés par les lacs de lave d'Hawaï et le laccolite de Shonkin Sag au Montana. Normalement, les liquides résiduels hautement différenciés résident à l'intérieur des fronts de solidification qui progressent vers l'arrière et sont généralement à l'abri des processus éruptifs. Ce n'est que dans le cas d'une population initiale abondante de phénocristaux, qui se rassemblent dans un cumulat basai épais, que des liquides hautement différenciés peuvent être fournis à la portion active (c'est-à-dire »éruptible«) de la chambre magmatique. A Hawaï, bien que la différenciation soit continuellement régie par la cristallisation d'olivine, la poursuite du processus a lieu à l'intérieur des fronts de solidification. Ce n'est que par la répétition d'actions de transport et de stagnation qu'il est possible de différencier audelà de la composition critique du front de solidification (±7% MgO et 51,5% SiO2). A partir de la distribution de la taille des cristaux à Hawaï et à Shonkin Sag, on peut déduire les processus physique et chimique de la solidification, y compris la cinétique de la cristallisation. Une particularité courante de ces corps basaltiques est la formation de veines grenues et de ségrégations de liquides très différenciés et de granophyres à l'intérieur du front supérieur de solidification. Cette manifestation bimodale est la clé qui permet de comprendre le volcanisme siliceux islandais. En Islande, les rhyolites constituent d'ordinaire une population bimodale avec les basaltes centraux. Les rhyolites, les granophyres et les felsites sont fréquents, et souvent sous forme d'intrusions litées. Les coulées ardentes et les vraies intrusions de type granitique sont rares. Les volumineuses laves siliceuses du volcan central de Torfajokull contiennent des assemblages de phénocristaux en déséquilibre. Ce fait, ainsi que la non concordance des isotopes de l'oxygène entre rhyolites et basaltes, traduisent, à l'origine de ces rhyolites, une fusion partielle extensive de la croûte basaltique hétérogène d'Islande. Des corps siliceux relativement petits et chimiquement distincts bien que d'emplacements très voisins se sont formés par concentration de fusions partielles granophyriques lors des premiers cycles de solidification. Ce processus s'exprime également dans l'intrusion granophyrique litée de Slaufrudalur, en Islande orientale. Slaufrudalur est une caldeira souterraine fermée, équivalente par son style et son processus igné à la caldeira subaérienne de Torfajokull. A Hawaï, le phénomène dominant est la cristallisation fractionnée gravitative, sans production de rhyolite. La tectonique de l'Islande permet la régénération continue et extensive d'une mince croûte basaltique chaude. Les rhyolites y sont engendrées par la concentration des veines et ségrégations siliceuses originelles et par la fusion partielle de masses extrusives intermédiaires descendues profondément dans la croûte.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Auf Hawaii treten, trotz intensiven Basalt-Vulkanismusses, keine Rhyolithe auf. Auf Island dagegen ist Rhyolith, mit 10–12% des anstehenden Gesteins, verbreitet. Dieser Kontrast wurde anhand grundlegender magmatischer Prozesse untersucht, wie sie in flachen Lava-Seen Hawaiis und im Shonkin Sag Laccolith Montanas auftreten. Hochdifferenzierte Restschmelzen verbleiben innerhalb langsam nach innen vorrückender Erstarrungsfronten und sind meist unerreichbar für eruptive Prozesse. Nur wenn anfänglich bereits große Mengen von Einsprenglingen vorhanden sind, die rasch am Boden der Magmenkammer akkumulieren, kann eine hochdifferenzierte Schmelze in den aktiven (d.h. eruptiven) Teil der Magmenkammer gelangen. Obwohl auf Hawaii die Differentiation durch die Kristallisation von Olivin anhaltend kontrolliert wird, findet an der Erstarrungsfront weitere Differentiation statt. Nur durch wiederholten Transport und zeitweiliges Verharren ist es möglich, über die kritische Zusammensetzung der vordersten Erstarrungsfront hinaus zu differenzieren (ca. 7% MgO und 51,5% SiO2). An Kristallgrö-ßenverteilungen (CDS) von Hawaii und Shonkin Sag können die angenommenen physikalischen und chemischen Prozesse der Kristallisation und die Kristallisationskinetik gezeigt werden. Ein weit verbreitetes Merkmal dieser Basaltkörper ist die Bildung grobkristalliner Gänge und Absonderung von stark differenzierten Schmelzen und Granophyren innerhalb der oberen Erstarrungsfront. Diese ausgeprägt bimodale Charakteristik ist der Schlüssel zum Verständnis des sauren isländischen Vulkanismus. Isländische Rhyolithe treten meist in bimodaler Verbreitung mit Basalten in Zusammenhang mit zentralen Vulkanen auf. Rhyolithe, Granophyre und Feisite sind häufig, in oft geschichteten Intrusionen. Ignimbrite und echte Granitintrusionen sind selten. Die großen Mengen SiO2-reicher Laven am Torfajokull-Zentralvulkan enthalten Ein-sprenglinge, die sich nicht im Gleichgewicht mit der Matrix befinden. Dies, und die unterschiedlichen delta-18O-Werte von Rhyolithen und Basalten, zeigen, daß ausgeprägtes teilweises Aufschmelzen der heterogenen Basaltkruste von Island zur Produktion dieser Rhyolithe führte. Relativ kleine, nahe benachbarte saure Körper, die aber deutliche Unterschiede in ihrem Chemismus aufweisen, werden gebildet durch die Konzentration granophyrischer Teilschmelzen aus früheren Kristallisationszyklen. Dieser Vorgang wird auch widergespiegelt in der »layered intrusions« von Slaufrudalur in Ostisland. Slaufrudalur ist eine geschlossene unterirdische Kaldera, deren magmatische Prozesse und Baustil der subaerischen Torfajokull-Kaldera entsprechen. Die Prozesse in Hawaii sind dominiert von gravitativer Kristallisationsdifferentiation und es werden keine Rhyolithe produziert. Die isländische Tektonik führt zu kontinuierlicher starker Wiederaufarbeitung von dünner, heißer basaltischer Kruste. Dabei wird, durch die Konzentration ursprünglicher saurer Teilschmelzen und Gänge und durch die teilweise Aufschmelzung intermediärer Intrusiva, die tief in die Kruste abgesunken sind, Rhyolith produziert.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The proposal ofJackson andKaye (1966) for evaluating both differences of normal stress in a viscometric flow by using only total thrust measurements in a cone- and-plate viscometer is extended. An analytic relation valid for all values of the separation between cone and plate is obtained, which is shown to include as special cases the well-known cone- and-plate formula, the parallel-plate formula ofKotaka et al. (1959) andJackson andKaye's. Examples of the method's application to experimental results are given.
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