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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10184 , NASA-TM-85621 , NAS 1.15:85621
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of papers which deal with radiometric characterization of the TM sensor is presented. Spectral characteristics are summarized. The geometric accuracy of TM are also examined. Aspects of prelaunch and post launch sensor performance, ground processing techniques, and error correction are also investigated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85622 , E84-10185 , NAS 1.15:85622
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors on LANDSATs 4 and 5 affecting their spatial responses are described, and functions defining the response of the system to an arbitrary input spatial pattern are derived, i.e., transfer functions (TF) and line spread functions (LSF). These design LSF's and TF's were modified based on prelaunch component and system measurements to provide improved estimates. Prelaunch estimates of LSF/FT's are compared to in-orbit estimates. For the MSS instruments, only limited prelaunch scan direction square-wave response (SWR) data were available. Design estimates were modified by convolving in Gaussian blur till the derived LSF/TF's produced SWR's comparable to the measurements. The two MSS instruments were comparable at their temperatures of best focus; separate calculations were performed for bands 1 and 3, band 2 and band 4. The pre-sample nadir effective instantaneous field's of view (EIFOV's) based on the .5 modulation transfer function (MTF) criteria vary from 70 to 75 meters in the track direction and 79 to 82 meters in the scan direction. For the TM instruments more extensive prelaunch measurements were available. Bands 1 to 4, 5 and 7, and 6 were handled separately as were the two instruments. Derived MTF's indicate nadir pre-sample EIFOV's of 32 to 33 meter track (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 36 meter scan (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 1245 meter track (band 6) and 141 meter scan (band 6) for both TM's.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10171 , NASA-TM-86130 , NAS 1.15:86130
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: A fixed factor analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) approach was used to quantify the impact of each TM sensor characteristic (spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolutions) on classification accuracy. All assessments were made relative to MSS sensor characteristics, and the impact of each characteristic was assessed individually, and in all possible combinations. Thematic Mapper data acquired over the Washington, D.C. area on November 2, 1982 were utilized to conduct the experiment. The following results were obtained: the reduction of quantization level from eight bits to six bits caused a decrease in overall accuracy (7%); the use of only three bands (TM 2, 3 and 4) covering the isible and near infrared portion of the spectrum caused a decrease in overall accuracy (7%); and the decrease in spatial resolution resulted in an increase in overall accuracy (4%). Results indicate that the increased radiometric and spectral resolution of the TM instrument do provide increased information content. The result of the spatial resolution degradation is somewhat misleading, in that the result is more a function of spatial resolution.
    Keywords: DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Invest. Summ., Including Dec. 1983 Workshop Results, Vol. 2; p 119-120
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:83955 , NASA-TM-83955 , E83-10107
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Based on solar irradiance data published by Neckel and Labs (1984) and Iqbal (1983), the solar exoatmospheric irradiances for Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been calculated. Results vary by up to 1 percent from previous published values, which were based on the earlier data of Neckel and Labs. For TM bands 5 and 7, integrated solar exoatmospheric irradiances have also been recalculated using solar irradiance data published by Labs and Neckel (1968), Arvesen et al. (1969), and Iqbal (1983). These irradiances vary by up to 6 percent from previously published results, which were based on data published by Thekaekara (1972).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 8; 517-523
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Analyses of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were conducted to assess the effects of sensor advancements on the thematic classification of remote sensing data. The effects of altering three sensor characteristics (spatial resolution, data quantization, and spectral band configuration) from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) specifications were investigated using analysis-of-variance (ANOVA). Analyses were conducted on data from two TM scenes: Washington, D.C. (late autumn) and western Pennsylvania (late summer). Results indicate that the contribution of sensor advancements to thematic classification are highly dependent of spectral and spatial scene attributes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The Multispectral Scanner (MSS) remote sensing instrument carried by Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 is similar to MSS instruments carried by Landsat-1, Landsat-2, and Landsat-3. However, the addition of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument to Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 required several design changes in the MSS instruments carried on these satellites because of the lower orbit and new satellite platform. Data from the MSS onboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 satellites were found to be generally comparable to the data obtained in the case of the earlier Landsat MSSs. However, a coherent noise pattern was observed in the Landsat-4 MSS data. In the present paper, the conduction of a noise analysis is discussed along with the noise characterization results, and a technique through which the Landsat-4 MSS coherent noise can be removed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0099-1112); 51; 1263-127
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Relative spectral response data for the Landsat-4 and Landsat-4 backup multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS), the protoflight and flight models, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1, 2 and 3 scanners. Channel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners.The principal differences between the spectral responses of the Landsat-4 scanners and previous scanners are discussed. The simulated Landsat-4 scanner outputs were 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans targets. The Landsat-4 scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners. In the upper-band edge of the red band of the protoflight scanner, one channel was markedly different (12 nm) from the rest. For a soybeans target, this nonuniformity resulted in a within-band difference of 6.2 percent in simulated outputs between channels.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 6; 697-716
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The results of the aerosol optical thickness and water column abundance measurements performed with an eight-channel sun photometer during the KUREX-91 experiment are presented. Calibration of the sun photometer was performed at mountain sites before and after the field experiment. Subsequent to the field experiment, the sun photometer's response was compared with other instruments at many locations. Calibration results and the measurements are discussed.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1278-1280.
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