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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Tributyltin (TBT) compounds, some of the most toxic xenobiotics, produce a variety of pathological reactions in animals. A reliable biomonitoring method to assess the degree of environmental TBT pollution has been described based on investigations of virilization phenomena in prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Examples are the imposex phenomenon in marine and freshwater species, the intersex reaction in littorinids and the reduction of female sexual glands and offspring numbers in further species resulting mainly in a sterilization of females. The degree of imposex or intersex in populations is determined by different biomonitoring indices which allow to assess the TBT pollution of the environment at low costs with high precision. The effectiveness of TBT legislations is analysed by extensive surveys in France and Ireland indicating that there is still a continuing threat to sensitive marine organisms. TBT disturbs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones on the level of estrogen biosynthesis. The observed virilization phenomena seem due to an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase by this organotin compound.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant ecology 95 (1991), S. 127-135 
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Bioindication ; Heavy metals ; Plant analysis ; Chemical elements ; Peat profiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To get a first impression of the degree of pollution in the Forest Biosphere Reserve 350 km northwest of Moscow, samples of Polytrichum commune and peat profiles were measured by ICP/MS after decomposition by high-pressure ashing. Comparing the results with data found in similar systems in Central Europe the Forest Biosphere Reserve can be described than ‘medium-polluted’ by heavy metals. Pb shows lower values as in comparable systems in Germany, due to the fact of lower traffic density in Sowjetunion. The status of the nutritional elements Ca, Mg and K is in the same order of magnitude as found in German forest ecosystems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The influence of high concentrations of sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) on the analytical results obtained by means of several modern analytical methods by different laboratories was investigated. The results obtained for the halophytic plants, Aster tripolium and Rhizophora mangle, were compared with that of NBS-Citrus leaves (NBS 1572). With a few outliers no considerable “interference effects” from Na, Cl and Br on the results of other elements were found.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Samples of water and suspended particulate matter from the river Elbe were repeatedly analysed by means of TXRF spectrometry. In 10 independent determinations, no significant influence in the results by sample inhomogeneity was detectable for the aqueous as well as for the solid phase. To verify the accuracy of TXRF data for these kinds of samples, standard reference materials NIST 1573, 1633a, and 1643c were analysed together with the river samples. Excellent agreement was found between these measurements and the reference values.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Biomonitoring is a method of observing the impact of external factors on ecosystems and their development over a long period, or of ascertaining differences between one location and another. A monitor suitable for the subject of the investigation must be chosen, and the comparability of the element concentrations thus determined (both within the investigation and with other studies) must be ensured by adhering to precise sampling guidelines. In addition to the small amount of equipment required, the advantages of biomonitoring lie in the ecosystem approach that permits conclusions going beyond the biomonitor itself. Attention has to be given to the factors that may affect element concentrations and which can lead to incorrect statements if ignored.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Within the framework of a European-scaled moss survey, various moss species were sampled throughout The Netherlands [NL], Germany [D], and Switserland [CH], and used in moss interspecies comparisons of elemental concentrations. Moss species considered were Pleurozium schreberi [NL,D,CH], Brachythecium rutabulum [NL], Hypnum cupressiforme [D,CH], Hylocomium splendens [D,CH], and Scleropodium purum [D]. Element analysis was carried out directly (The Netherlands, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: As, Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Fe, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V and Zn), or after sample digestion (The Netherlands, ICP-MS: Pb, Germany, AAS/ICP-AES: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn; Switzerland, ICP-AES/ICP-MS: Co, V, and Zn). Local variations (=within sampling sites) in element concentrations were estimated, based upon in-site multiple sampling and analysis of Pleurozium schreberi species in The Netherlands. Element concentrations in moss species were compared in linear correlations, both in unweighted and weighted fits, with weighing factors based on the local variation data. Weighted fits were shown to generally improve the calibration characteristics, as tracked by X 2 calculations. The calibration data suggest the presence of previously unnoticed outliers in element concentrations. The absence of further information, however, may prescribe the use of all data in comparison procedures. These results indicate that interlaboratory analysis of replicate samples and the use of dedicated certified reference materials may help solving problems in the analysis of the sample series. For several of the considered interspecies comparisons, weighted calibrations could be based on significant correlations (P=0.05). Actual use, however, will remain arbitrarily decided upon, and may be based on decisions as to what to accept with respect to the levels of uncertainty in the calibration parameters. Furthermore, the use of calibrations in extrapolation modes is greatly restricted by the necessary reservations in geographically larger-scaled applications.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Nucella lapillus ; Littorina littorea ; imposex ; intersex ; TBT effect monitoring ; geographical differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two different tributyltin (TBT)-induced virilisation phenomena in prosobranch snails – intersex in Littorina littorea and imposex in Nucella lapillus – are compared in order to facilitate their simultaneous use in geographical large scale effect monitoring surveys. Imposex in dogwhelks is a more sensitive biomarker and should be used in areas that are only slightly or moderately contaminated with TBT (ambient TBT concentrations 〈 2.0 ng as Sn l-1). The assessment of intersex intensities in periwinkle populations has considerable advantages in areas with higher TBT concentrations and should be used also wherever dogwhelks are absent irrespective of the TBT exposure level. The intersex index (ISI) and vas deferens sequence (VDS) index are proposed as the most suited parameters for effect monitoring purposes. The geographical uniformity of intersex and imposex is analysed and proven for the coasts of Ireland, France, and Germany. A relative loss of TBT sensitivity in females can be found, but to a varying extent in both species. The implications of this result for biological TBT effect monitoring programmes are discussed in light of the fact that intersex and imposex have both been found to be irreversible. Because it is the objective of these programmes to assess current TBT contaminations and resulting biological effects, only relatively young specimens should be considered in the sampling strategy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Multi element analysis ; Accumulation ; Rejection ; Indication ; Element concentration cadasters ; Ecosystem analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract About 50 naturally occurring chemical elements were quantitatively determined by AAS, ICP/AES, ICP/MS and INAA in the main vegetation cover of the Forest Biosphere Reserve near Kalinin, USSR. The lichen Hypogymna physodes, which was studied and compared with other plant species, accumulates the elements Al, As, Br, Ce, Co, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Tm, V, Zn, and Zr. At the same time, a depletion of the alkaline elements Na, K, Rb, and Cs and the alkaline earth elements Mg and Ca is to be observed. Within the moss cover certain heavy metals are also accumulated by Polytrichum commune and the various Sphagnum species. As in Hypogymna physodes there is also a pronounced depletion of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca, but contrary to Hypogymna physodes there is a simultaneous accumulation of the alkaline metals K and Rb in Polytrichum commune and additionally of Na in the Sphagnum species. This is in agreement with studies showing different behaviour for the element potassium in Polytrichum formosum in the course of several vegetation periods. Potassium accumulation was found at the beginning of the vegetation period contrary to the dilution effect due to biomass supply. The depletion of Mg and Ca in all accumulator plants seems to be a direct consequence of heavy metal concentration since this phenomenon occurs irrespective of the site, as was shown by a comparison with data from a German forest ecosystem (Grasmoor near Osnabrück). Clear bioindication behaviour of Polytrichum commune, the various Sphagnum mosses and Hypogymna physodes was found for the elements Mn, Ni, Sn, Th, Cr, Mo, and S since the same accumulation and depletion behaviour was observed for all three plants as a function of site. These plant species could thus be used as bioindication cadasters in the sense of ARNDT. The higher shrub plants examined (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus) show the already known accumulation of the elements Ba and Mn (up to 4000 mg/kg of Mn for Vaccinium myrtillus). In general the concentration ranges for many elements are more restricted in higher plants.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Element Concentration Cadasters ; IUBS project ; Multielement analysis ; Element toxicity ; Occurrence ; Essentiality ; Accumulation ; Consumption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract After acceptance of the “Element Concentration Cadasters in Ecosystems” (ECCE) programme as an international project sponsored by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) at the 24th General Assembly of IUBS in Amsterdam in Sept 1991, the present status of “Biological Trace Element Research” (BTER) is presented here from the biological point of view. Especially information on occurrence, essentially, toxicity and uptake form of all 88 naturally occurring chemical elements is presented. In addition an estimated annual production of each element in the year 2000 and examples of their technical application is given. A scientific proposal for further research work on a local, regional and global scale has been discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Lanthanides ; Rare-earth elements ; Multi element analysis ; Plants ; Ecosystem ; Vegetation cover
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Lanthanides (rare-earth elements) were quantitatively determined by atomic emission spectrometry/inductively coupled plasma (AES/ICP) in various plants (Picea abies, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Polytrichum commune, Sphagnum spec., and Hypogymna physodes) collected in the Forest Biosphere Reserve 350 km northwest of Moscow (USSR). Compared with previously established background values for lanthanide elements in central Europe, the rare elements determined in the USSR samples appear in lower concentrations. The lichen Hypogymna physodes can be characterized as an extreme accumulator of lanthanide elements up to a factor of ten compared to the other plant species collected in the Forest Biosphere Reserve. With regard to the lanthanide contents in plants collected in a German reference forest ecosystem, it can be seen, that the German samples represent without exception higher lanthanide values. Leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea display contents 3–4 times higher, leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus show concentrations higher by a factor of about 0.3, approximately twice the contents were determined in the German samples of Polytrichum formosum and P. commune, and the values in the German samples of the Sphagnum species are about 3 times that of the Soviet samples. As pointed out for pollution by heavy metals in part I of this series, the Forest Biosphere Reserve is generally characterized by lower contents of lanthanides in the vegetation cover than a comparable forest ecosystem (Grasmoor near Osnabrück, F.R.G.) in central Europe.
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