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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental management 18 (1994), S. 401-411 
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Rural ; Western politics ; Attitudes ; Environmental policy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than $40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: KEY WORDS: Rural; Environmental policy; Economic composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Health effects ; Epidemiology ; Malignant neoplasm ; Dose response ; Nuclear fuel cycle ; Radionuclides ; Radon ; Radioactivity ; Cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The data base for each process of the nuclear fuel cycle has been updated as a part of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems (CONAES) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The BNL Energy System Network Simulator (ESNS) was modified to accommodate the new data, and methodology was developed for estimating population dose and health effects resulting from atmosphere releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle. Estimates of population dose and health effects were made using these new CONAES emission data and the new model for three scenarios out to the year 2000: (1) no reprocessing; (2) reprocessing, 1-year cooling; and (3) reprocessing, 5-year cooling. Results indicate that radon emissions from mining and milling of uranium bearing ores will have greater impacts than any other component in the open nuclear fuel cycle. The estimated number of health effects will depend, to a large extent, on the lung model mechanism assumed to induce cancer; i.e., either the smeared or the unsmeared model. The smear model and the linear relationship predict for scenario 1, 630; for scenario 2, 949; and for scenario 3, 854 lung cancers, respectively, using the new CONAES data. Epidemiologic data from six United States counties were correlated using a new statistical model (described in the text) in order to test the validity of the lung model and the linear relationship. Results do not support the high lung cancer correlations expected from the unsmear model and the linear relationship; therefore, it is concluded that low-dose mechanisms may be different from those developed from high-dose data. The best place to look for effects of low-dose radiation may be the less developed countries because of a reduction in the noise level caused by chemical pollutants.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The tissue localization was analysed of collagen X during human fetal and juvenile articular cartilagebone metamorphosis. This unique collagen type was found in the hypertrophic cartilage zone peri- and extracellularly and in cartilage residues within bone trabeculae. In addition, occasionally a slight intracellular staining reaction was found in prehypertrophic proliferating chondrocytes and in chondrocytes surrounding vascular channels. A slight staining was also seen in the zone of periosteal ossification and occasionally at the transition zone of the perichondrium to resting cartilage. Our data provide evidence that the appearance of collagen X is mainly associated with cartilage hypertrophy, analogous to the reported tissue distribution of this collagen type in animals. In addition, we observed an increased and often “spotty” distribution of collagen X with increasing cartilage “degeneration” associated with the closure of the growth plate. In basal hypertrophic cartilage areas, a co-distribution of collagens II and X was found with very little and “spotty” collagen III. In juvenile cartilage areas around single hypertrophic chondrocytes, co-localization of collagens X and I was also detected.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Volcanic rocks exposed on Guam were erupted during the Late Middle Eocene (Facpi Fm.), Late Eocene-Oligocene (Alutom Fm.) and Miocene (Umatac Fm.). Four magma series are recognized: the boninite series (44 m.y.b.p.), the tholeiite and calc-alkaline series, which were erupted along with boninite series lavas at 32–36 m.y.b.p. and high-K lavas of the Umatac Fm. (14 m.y.b.p.). Isotope and and rare earth element (REE) characteristics of the four magma series are distinct. Boninite series lavas have U-shaped REE patterns, relatively low 143Nd/144Nd (0.51294–0.51298), and high 206Pb/204Pb (19.0–19.2). Tholeiite series lavas are LREE (light REE) depleted, and have high 143Nd/144Nd (0.51304–0.51306) and low 206Pb/204Pb (18.4–18.5). Calc-alkaline series lavas have Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios similar to tholeiite series lavas, but flat to U-shaped REE patterns. Umatac Fm. lavas are strongly LREE-enriched, and have higher 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70375–0.70380) and 207Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/ 204Pb than Facpi and Alutom Fm. lavas. Boninite and tholeiite series magmas, erupted in the position of the Palau-Kyushu Ridge, were probably derived from distinct mantle sources having OIB and N-MORB-like isotopic characteristics, together with fluids derived from subducted Pacific plate basalt. Calc-alkaline series lavas were most likely derived from the tholeiite series by extensive crystal fractionation, wallrock contamination and magma mixing. Lavas of the Umatac Fm., erupted in the position of the West Mariana Ridge, may include up to 2–3% subducted sediment, similar to some active Mariana arc lavas.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Type X collagen — Nondegenerate discs — Scoliotic discs — Endplate — Hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotype — Matrix calcification.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The distribution and expression of type X collagen, a calcium-binding collagen, which is a marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes and thought to be involved in cartilage calcification, was examined in situ in nondegenerate (grade I or II) human discs taken at autopsy over a wide age range (fetal–〉80 years) and also in scoliotic discs removed at surgery. In the fetal vertebral column, type X collagen was strongly expressed in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the endplate, but was not seen in other areas. In the cartilaginous endplate of adults, it was found over the whole age range examined, with intensity increasing with age. In the disc matrix itself, type X collagen was demonstrated around individual cells from all individuals older than 50 years, but not in any fetal or autopsy disc from individuals younger than 40 years. In scoliotic discs, however, focal type X collagen expression was seen in 3/8 patients younger than 40 years including one 12-year-old. No type X collagen was found in the outer annulus in any autopsy or scoliotic disc, supporting the idea that cells of the outer annulus are phenotypically distinct from cells of the inner annulus and the nucleus. Our results demonstrate for the first time that type X collagen is a possible gene product of the intervertebral disc cells and a potential biochemical component of the disc matrix. They indicate that with age or in scoliosis, some cells from the inner annulus or nucleus of the disc differentiate to the hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotype. This might be the initiating event for the abnormal calcification described in aged and scoliotic discs in other studies.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0012-1606
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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