ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Collection
Publisher
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Overview of the Main Disinfection Processes for Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Plants Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10010086 Authors: Maria Collivignarelli Alessandro Abbà Ilaria Benigna Sabrina Sorlini Vincenzo Torretta The use of water disinfection as a public health measure reduces the spread of diseases. Various disinfection technologies can be used to meet the pathogen inactivation demand in water. This work is an overview of the main disinfection technologies of wastewater and drinking water that reports for the conventional processes the action mechanism, the possible formation of by-products, the operative conditions, the advantages and disadvantages. For advanced and natural processes the action mechanisms are reported. Advanced technologies are interesting but are still in the research state, while conventional technologies are the most used. There is a tendency, especially in Italy, to use chlorine-based disinfectant, despite in some forms could lead to production of disinfection by-products.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-09-23
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 9, Pages 1704: Disinfection in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Evaluation of Effectiveness and Acute Toxicity Effects Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su9101704 Authors: Maria Collivignarelli Alessandro Abbà Gianpaolo Alloisio Eleonora Gozio Ilaria Benigna In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE). This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and health security. The legislation provides the following limits for wastewater: Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration below 5000 CFU 100 mL−1 (recommended value), active chlorine concentration below 0.2 mg L−1 and lack of acute toxicity. The compliance with these conditions is shown by means of the study of correct disinfectant dosage, which also depends on wastewater characteristics. An investigation at the regional level (from 2013 to 2016) shows a correlation between acute toxicity discharge and disinfection treatment through chemical reagents (mainly with the use of chlorine compounds and peracetic acid). The experimental work concerns two active sludge WWTPs in northern Italy with small capacity (10,000–12,000 PE). The activities provide the assessment of microbiological quality and toxicity of WWTPs effluents in relation to the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, by means of the use of batch tests. The results show that with similar disinfectant dosage and comparable initial E. coli concentration, peracetic acid exhibits the best performance in terms of microbial removal (with removal yields up to 99.99%). Moreover, the acute toxicity was evident at higher doses and therefore with higher residuals of peracetic acid (2.68 mg L−1) compared to the free residual chlorine (0.17 mg L−1).
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-08-15
    Description: In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-02-11
    Description: This work was aimed at studying the applicability of H2O2-based oxidation processes (namely H2O2/UV, photo-Fenton, and Fenton) for the treatment of six real aqueous wastes. These wastes derived from chemical, pharmaceutical, and detergent production, and were characterised by high COD (chemical oxygen demand) and, in four cases, surfactant concentrations: overall, about 100 tests were conducted. The H2O2/UV and photo-Fenton processes proved to be very effective in COD removal, the efficiency being greater than 70%. The optimal treatment conditions for the H2O2/UV process were: 120 min reaction, H2O2/CODinitial dosage ratio = 1/2; the radiation intensity (up to 2000 W·L−1) revealed to be a crucial factor, especially in the earlier stage of the process (about 40 min): this aspect can be exploited to reduce the costs related to energy consumption. For the photo-Fenton process the following conditions were chosen: Fe2+/H2O2 ratio = 1/30; specific power input = 125 W·L−1; H2O2/CODinitial = 1/2; reaction time = 240 min. Photolytic reactions and the presence of dissolved oxygen revealed to be crucial factors for COD removal. The Fenton process, while showing a moderate efficiency (25% COD removal) in the treatment of high loaded wastewaters, provided excellent results in the treatment of aqueous wastes with high content of surfactants. An average yield removal of 70% for non-ionic surfactants (TAS) and 95% for anionic surfactants (MBAS) was obtained, under the following optimal conditions: Fe2+/H2O2 = 1/4, H2O2/CODinitial ratio = 1, and contact time = 30 min.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...