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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : The Geological Society
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 9/M 02.0134
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: vi, 344 S.
    ISBN: 186239072X
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 176
    Classification: A. 3.11.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London [u.a.] : Chapman & Hall
    Call number: M 94.0454
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xiii, 362 S.
    ISBN: 0412405903
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: Sedimentary facies in the subsurface are usually interpreted from a epositional/stratigraphical perspective: the depositional layering is generally considered to remain undisturbed, except in a few settings. But, there is growing evidence that subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) is more widespread than previously thought, as new observations arise from the ever-increasing resolution of subsurface data. Many examples are from hydrocarbon provinces but studies elsewhere, for example in preparation for the underground storage of hazardous waste, have yielded unexpected examples. Although until now the different aspects of SSM, including soft sediment deformations, sand injections, shale diapirs, mud volcanoes, etc, have been separated, the new discoveries emphasize their inter-connection, regardless of scale, depth, location, grain size or trigger mechanism. This volume integrates the different aspects of sediment mobilization in the subsurface and their structural consequences, allowing a more generaland a more coherent view of the subject.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (522 Seiten)
    ISBN: 1862391416
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Description / Table of Contents: The flow of glacier ice can produce structures that are striking and beautiful. Associated sediments,too, can develop spectacular deformation structures, and examples are remarkbly well preserved in Quaternary deposits. Although such features have long been recognized, they are now the subject of new attention from glaciologists and glacial geologists. This collection of papers addresses how the methods for unravelling deformation structures evolved in recent years by structural geologists can be used for glacial materials, and the opportunities offered to structural geologists by glacial materials for studying deformation in rocks.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (360 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862390720
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    In:  Journal of Structural Geology, Taipei, Elsevier, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1013-1022, pp. 2091, (ISBN: 0-12-018847-3)
    Publication Date: 1998
    Keywords: Physical properties of rocks ; Fluids ; Stress ; Rock mechanics ; Structural geology ; JSG
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  • 6
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 216: 35-50.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: A numerical code has been used to simulate the flow patterns in geological soft sediments that are driven by buoyancy forces resulting from reverse-density stratification. The aim was to provide a clearer understanding of the different roles of initiating conditions, inertia and rheological behaviour on the morphologies and timing of formation of natural features such as load casts and flame structures. Particular attention was paid to the cuspate form of rising intrusions that is commonly seen in nature but that has proved elusive in most earlier experiments. The numerical results demonstrate that large localised initiating perturbations and inertial influence during flow both tend to cause a decrease in the wavelength of the resulting flow pattern and can, under certain circumstances, serve to promote a cuspate morphology. The use of a relatively low viscosity Newtonian fluid as an approximation of the coarse-grained upper layer coupled with, critically, power-law behaviour in the underlying clayey layer was also found to promote a cuspate form in the rising intrusion.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) -- which includes soft sediment deformations, sand injections, shale diapirs and mud volcanoes -- is more widespread than previously thought. The ever-increasing resolution of subsurface data yielded many new observations of SSM, not only from regions obviously prone to sediment remobilization, such as an active tectonic setting or in a region with exceptionally large sediment supply, but also from tectonically quiescent areas. Until now, all the different aspects of SSM have largely been treated as separate phenomena. There is very little cross-referencing between, for example, studies of mud volcanoes and those of sand injections, although both are caused by sediment fluidization. Divisions according to sediment type, mobilization depth or triggering mechanism make little sense when trying to understand the processes of SSM. There is a gradation in mobilization processes that cause considerable overlap between categories in any classification. Hence, it is necessary to integrate our understanding of all types of SSM, regardless of scale, depth, location, grain size or triggering mechanism. In addition, polygonal faults are important in this context, as this nontectonic structural style is closely associated with sedimentary injections and may also reflect large scale mobilization. The main goal of this volume is to help develop a more integrated understanding of subsurface sediment mobilization. It contains specific case studies and a number of overview papers about the mechanisms of sediment mobilization in the subsurface (Maltman & Bolton), about polygonal faulting (Cartwright) and about shale diapirs (Morley). Other recent review papers were published about sand ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract.
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  • 8
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 216: 9-20.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Geological sediments tend to strengthen during progressive burial but the interplay of porosity and permeability, strain and effective stress gives rise to numerous circumstances in which the strength increase can be temporarily reversed. The sediment becomes capable of bulk movement -- sediment mobilization. Most explanations involve overpressuring, which results from additional loading being sustained by pore-fluid that is unable to dissipate adequately, leading to frictional strength reduction. The processes are highly heterogeneous, areally and with depth. The loads can be external ( dynamic') and both monotonic (e.g. a rapidly added suprajacent mass) and cyclic (e.g. the passage of waves), internal (e.g. the result of mineral reactions) and hydraulic (e.g. injection of external fluid). The sediments may become liquidized -- that is, lose strength completely and behave as a fluid -- through temporary fabric collapse (sensitive sediments) because loads are borne entirely by the pore-fluid (liquefaction), or by the grains becoming buoyant (fluidization), typically due to the ingress of externally derived fluids. In response to hydraulic gradients, buoyancy forces and reversed viscosity or density gradients, the weakened sediment may undergo bulk movement, though this requires failure of the enclosing material and sustained gradients. Mobilized but non-liquidized sediments retain some residual strength but can attain large shear displacements under critical state conditions.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: The mega-faults between actively converging plates have recently been penetrated by the Ocean Drilling Program at three plate margins: Barbados, Costa Rica and Nankai. Cores, downhole instrumentation and detailed seismic imagery provide data which may be helpful in interpreting ancient examples of shear zones. The mega-faults, developed in poorly lithified sediments, separate major lithospheric plates yet are merely tens of metres in thickness. They respond to ongoing strain by intensifying inwards rather than propagating outward splays and can grow thinner because of continuing compaction. Surprisingly, lithological influence on the localization of fault propagation seems slight, but lithology determines the deformation style within the faults. The resulting structures show asymmetric distributions within the zones but, in these flat-lying structures, tend to show a downward increase in strain. Upper margins are typically gradational whereas lower boundaries can be strikingly abrupt. The fluid-transport behaviours are complex. In some situations the horizontal flux is very diffuse but centred around the fault. Some faults can efficiently channelize fluids -- for distances of tens of kilometres -- while at the same curbing flow across them. The fluid transport is clearly episodic and heterogeneous. Fingers of pressured fluid migrate within the fault zone, in patterns that constantly change through time.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The modified semi-ion pair model for four-center reactions initially developed to treat the addition of hydrogen halides to olefins, including polar olefins, has been extensively applied to these systems. In addition, the restriction that the species added be a hydrogen halide has been relaxed and addition of HOH to olefins is treated within the same frame-work. Input parameters, transition state properties, and calculated activation energies are presented for 111 such reactions. Calculated activation energies for the elimination reactions agree to better than ±2 kcal/mole, on the average, with experimental values where these areknown.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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