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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hoppe, Clara Jule Marie; Schuback, Nina; Semeniuk, David M; Giesbrecht, Karina; Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, H; Maldonado, Maria T; Rost, Björn; Varela, Diana E; Tortell, Philippe Daniel (2018): Resistance of Arctic phytoplankton to ocean acidification and enhanced irradiance. Polar Biology, 41(3), 399-413, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-017-2186-0
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The Arctic Ocean is a region particularly prone to on-going ocean acidification (OA) and climate-driven changes. The influence of these changes on Arctic phytoplankton assemblages, however, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how OA and enhanced irradiances (e.g. resulting from sea-ice retreat) will alter the species composition, primary production and ecophysiology of Arctic phytoplankton, we conducted an incubation experiment to investigate the effects of OA and enhanced irradiance levels on an assemblage from Baffin Bay (71°N, 68°W). Seawater was collected from just below the deep Chl a maximum, and the resident phytoplankton were exposed to 380 and 1000 µatm pCO2 at both 15% and 35% incident irradiance. On-deck incubations, in which temperatures were 6°C above in situ conditions, were monitored for phytoplankton growth, biomass stoichiometry, net primary production, photo-physiology and taxonomic composition. During the 8-day experiment, taxonomic diversity decreased and the diatom Chaetoceros socialis became increasingly dominant irrespective of light or CO2 levels. We found no statistically significant effects from either higher CO2 or light on physiological properties of phytoplankton during the experiment. We did, however, observe an initial 2-day stress response in all treatments, and slight photo-physiological responses to higher CO2 and light during the first five days of the incubation. Our results thus indicate high resistance of Arctic phytoplankton to OA and enhanced irradiance levels, challenging the commonly predicted stimulatory effects of enhanced CO2 and light availability for primary production.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/octet-stream, 43.0 kBytes
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hoppe, Clara Jule Marie; Schuback, Nina; Semeniuk, David M; Maldonado, Maria T; Rost, Björn (2017): Functional Redundancy Facilitates Resilience of Subarctic Phytoplankton Assemblages toward Ocean Acidification and High Irradiance. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 14 pp, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00229
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In order to understand how ocean acidification (OA) and enhanced irradiance levels might alter phytoplankton eco-physiology, productivity and species composition, we conducted an incubation experiment with a natural plankton assemblage from sub-surface Subarctic waters (Davis Strait, 63°N). The phytoplankton assemblage was exposed to 380 and 1,000 µatm pCO2 at both 15 and 35% surface irradiance over 2 weeks. The incubations were monitored and characterized in terms of their photo-physiology, biomass stoichiometry, primary production and dominant phytoplankton species. We found that the phytoplankton assemblage exhibited pronounced high-light stress in the first days of the experiment (20-30% reduction in photosynthetic efficiency, Fv/Fm). This stress signal was more pronounced when grown under OA and high light, indicating interactive effects of these environmental variables. Primary production in the high light treatments was reduced by 20% under OA compared to ambient pCO2 levels. Over the course of the experiment, the assemblage fully acclimated to the applied treatments, achieving similar bulk characteristics (e.g., net primary production and elemental stoichiometry) under all conditions. We did, however, observe a pCO2-dependent shift in the dominant diatom species, with Pseudonitzschia sp. dominating under low and Fragilariopsis sp. under high pCO2 levels. Our results indicate an unexpectedly high level of resilience of Subarctic phytoplankton to OA and enhanced irradiance levels. The co-occurring shift in dominant species suggests functional redundancy to be an important, but so-far largely overlooked mechanism for resilience toward climate change.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/octet-stream, 48.0 kBytes
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Abraham, Edward R; Law, Cliff S; Boyd, Philip W; Lavender, Samantha J; Maldonado, Maria T; Bowie, Andrew R (2000): Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized bloom. Nature, 407(6805), 727-730, https://doi.org/10.1038/35037555
    Publication Date: 2020-01-20
    Description: The growth of populations is known to be influenced by dispersal, which has often been described as purely diffusive (Kierstead and Slobodkin, 1953; Okubo, 1980). In the open ocean, however, the tendrils and filaments of phytoplankton populations provide evidence for dispersal by stirring (Gower et al., 1980, doi:10.1038/288157a0; Holligan et al., 1993, doi:10.1029/93GB01731). Despite the apparent importance of horizontal stirring for plankton ecology, this process remains poorly characterized. Here we investigate the development of a discrete phytoplankton bloom, which was initiated by the iron fertilization of a patch of water (7 km in diameter) in the Southern Ocean (Boyd et al., 2000, doi:10.1038/35037500). Satellite images show a striking, 150-km-long bloom near the experimental site, six weeks after the initial fertilization. We argue that the ribbon-like bloom was produced from the fertilized patch through stirring, growth and diffusion, and we derive an estimate of the stirring rate. In this case, stirring acts as an important control on bloom development, mixing phytoplankton and iron out of the patch, but also entraining silicate. This may have prevented the onset of silicate limitation, and so allowed the bloom to continue for as long as there was sufficient iron. Stirring in the ocean is likely to be variable, so blooms that are initially similar may develop very differently.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 24 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-08-11
    Description: In order to understand how ocean acidification (OA) and enhanced irradiance levels might alter phytoplankton eco-physiology, productivity and species composition, we conducted an incubation experiment with a natural plankton assemblage from subsurface Subarctic waters (Davis Strait, 63◦N). The phytoplankton assemblage was exposed to 380 and 1,000 μatm pCO2 at both 15 and 35% surface irradiance over 2 weeks. The incubations were monitored and characterized in terms of their photo-physiology, biomass stoichiometry, primary production and dominant phytoplankton species. We found that the phytoplankton assemblage exhibited pronounced high-light stress in the first days of the experiment (20–30% reduction in photosynthetic efficiency, Fv/Fm). This stress signal was more pronounced when grown under OA and high light, indicating interactive effects of these environmental variables. Primary production in the high light treatments was reduced by 20% under OA compared to ambient pCO2 levels. Over the course of the experiment, the assemblage fully acclimated to the applied treatments, achieving similar bulk characteristics (e.g., net primary production and elemental stoichiometry) under all conditions. We did, however, observe a pCO2-dependent shift in the dominant diatom species, with Pseudonitzschia sp. dominating under low and Fragilariopsis sp. under high pCO2 levels. Our results indicate an unexpectedly high level of resilience of Subarctic phytoplankton to OA and enhanced irradiance levels. The co-occurring shift in dominant species suggests functional redundancy to be an important, but so-far largely overlooked mechanism for resilience toward climate change.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 383 (1996), S. 330-332 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We measured intracellular iron concentrations of five oceanic bacterial isolates maintained in synthetic ocean water medium9 enriched with an organic carbon substrate extracted from a diatom culture. Under iron-sufficient conditions (concentrations of inor-ganic iron, [Fe'] 40 nM), bacterial iron ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Changes in iron supply to oceanic plankton are thought to have a significant effect on concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide by altering rates of carbon sequestration, a theory known as the ‘iron hypothesis’. For this reason, it is important to understand the response of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The growth of populations is known to be influenced by dispersal, which has often been described as purely diffusive. In the open ocean, however, the tendrils and filaments of phytoplankton populations provide evidence for dispersal by stirring. Despite the apparent importance of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Prokaryotic microbes play a critical role in oceanic Fe cycling. They contain most of the biogenic Fe in offshore waters and are responsible for a large portion of the Fe uptake by the plankton community. In the subarctic North Pacific, surface populations of heterotrophic species assimilate more than 50% of the dissolved Fe and thus compete directly with phytoplankton for this limiting resource. In oligotrophic tropical and subtropical waters, photosynthetic bacteria become more important in Fe cycling as the number of unicellular cyanobacteria increases and the nitrogen-fixing Trichodesmium, which contains most of the biogenic Fe in the mixed layer, becomes abundant. Like their terrestrial counterparts, heterotrophic and phototrophic marine bacteria produce Fe-binding siderophores that are involved in Fe acquisition. Evidence exists that bacteria may modify Fe chemistry in the sea through the production of these ligands and thereby play a significant role in regulating production of eukaryotic phytoplankton.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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