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  • 1
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    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): C05011, doi:10.1029/2007JC004548.
    Description: Twin experiments were made to compare the reduced rank Kalman filter (RRKF), ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), and ensemble square-root Kalman filter (EnSKF) for coastal ocean problems in three idealized regimes: a flat bottom circular shelf driven by tidal forcing at the open boundary; an linear slope continental shelf with river discharge; and a rectangular estuary with tidal flushing intertidal zones and freshwater discharge. The hydrodynamics model used in this study is the unstructured grid Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). Comparison results show that the success of the data assimilation method depends on sampling location, assimilation methods (univariate or multivariate covariance approaches), and the nature of the dynamical system. In general, for these applications, EnKF and EnSKF work better than RRKF, especially for time-dependent cases with large perturbations. In EnKF and EnSKF, multivariate covariance approaches should be used in assimilation to avoid the appearance of unrealistic numerical oscillations. Because the coastal ocean features multiscale dynamics in time and space, a case-by-case approach should be used to determine the most effective and most reliable data assimilation method for different dynamical systems.
    Description: P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and J. Wei were supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR grant N00014-06-1- 0290); C. Chen and Q. Xu were supported by the U.S. GLOBEC/Georges Bank program (through NSF grants OCE-0234545, OCE-0227679, OCE- 0606928, OCE-0712903, OCE-0726851, and OCE-0814505 and NOAA grant NA-16OP2323), the NSF Arctic research grants ARC0712903, ARC0732084, and ARC0804029, and URI Sea Grant R/P-061; P. Xue was supported through the MIT Sea Grant 2006-RC-103; Z. Lai, J. Qi, and G. Cowles were supported through the Massachusetts Marine Fisheries Institute (NOAA grants NA04NMF4720332 and NA05NMF4721131); and R. Beardsley was supported through U.S. GLOBEC/Georges Bank NSF grant OCE-02227679, MIT Sea Grant NA06OAR1700019, and the WHOI Smith Chair in Coastal Oceanography.
    Keywords: Kalman filters ; Data assimilation ; Ocean modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Conference name: North Atlantic Current (NAC) System; 19-20 April 1993, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA
    Description: On April 19-20, 1993 a two-day workshop was held at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on "The North Atlantic Current (NAC) System". The workshop, which was sponsored by NSF/NOAA/ONR reflected a growing sense of excitement and interest in the oceanographic community in the NAC system and its role in the large scale circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean and Climate of the adjoining landmasses. The presence of the North Atlantic Current with its warm waters at such high latitudes, and its role in both the wind-driven and thermohaline circulations makes it unique amongst the Western Boundary Currents of the oceans. Being on the one hand part of the wind-driven circulation and on the other hand the upper branch of the "Global Conveyor Belt", the North Atlantic current is indeed an enigma, suggesting fundamental issues about the nature of the coupling between the two 'roles' of the current that will need to be addressed. But it was also clear from the workshop discussions that there remain considerable uncertainty about the basic structure of the NAC. A high level of interest in these questions was evident at the workshop. The lectures, presentations, and the discussion sessions where observational and modelling issues were debated, brought out many ideas for the development and focus of future research of the NAC and surrounding waters. This report is intended to provide not only a synopsis of the lectures, papers, and ideas that were discussed, but also a scientific statement from the workshop reflecting a growing consensus for initiating a coordinated research effort in the region.
    Description: NSF/NOAA/ONR
    Keywords: Ocean currents
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Working Paper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 39 (2012): L10601, doi:10.1029/2012GL051861.
    Description: A simple barotropic quasi-geostrophic model is used to demonstrate that instabilities radiated from an unstable eastern boundary current can generate zonal striations in the ocean interior with realistic wavelengths and amplitudes. Nonlinear transfer of energy from the more unstable trapped modes is important for radiating modes to overcome friction. The dynamics shown here are generic enough to point to the eastern boundary current as a likely source of the observed striations extending from oceanic eastern boundaries.
    Description: Y-S Fellowship when this study was done, and by NASA grant NNX12AD47G when this paper was prepared. M. Spall is supported by grant OCE-0926656. G. Flierl is supported by grant OCE-0752346.
    Description: 2012-11-16
    Keywords: Rossby waves ; Barotropic instability ; Eastern boundary currents ; Radiating instabilities ; Zonal jets ; Zonal striations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This paper presents the results of a data analysis, on an extensive series of Atlantic blocks, for the composites of both the positive and the negative anomaly cases and for the winter climatology, using the composite approach of Dole (1982, 1986). The results are compared with predictions of the theory formulated by Malguzzi and Malanotte-Rizzoli (1984, 1985) and Malanotte-Rizzoli and Malguzzi (1987) to model the blocking events. The results of the analyses indicate that the composite of the positive anomaly cases shows a strong northern barrier centered in the latitude band 62-72 deg N, in agreement with the northern confinement of the block. The northern, positive wall is not present in the climatology; its presence and significance are doubtful and debatable for the negative anomaly composite. For the individual positive cases for which a smooth and zonal upstream wind could be defined, the V-function shows the appearance of both a northern and southern wall below the tropopause.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 44; 2506-252
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A practical method of data assimilation for use with large, nonlinear, ocean general circulation models is explored. A Kalman filter based on approximation of the state error covariance matrix is presented, employing a reduction of the effective model dimension, the error's asymptotic steady state limit, and a time-invariant linearization of the dynamic model for the error integration. The approximations lead to dramatic computational savings in applying estimation theory to large complex systems. We examine the utility of the approximate filter in assimilating different measurement types using a twin experiment of an idealized Gulf Stream. A nonlinear primitive equation model of an unstable east-west jet is studied with a state dimension exceeding 170,000 elements. Assimilation of various pseudomeasurements are examined, including velocity, density, and volume transport at localized arrays and realistic distributions of satellite altimetry and acoustic tomography observations. Results are compared in terms of their effects on the accuracies of the estimation. The approximate filter is shown to outperform an empirical nudging scheme used in a previous study. The examples demonstrate that useful approximate estimation errors can be computed in a practical manner for general circulation models.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; C4; p. 6777-6793
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A time series of coastal zone color scanner images for the years 1979 and 1980 was used to observe the spatial and temporal variability of bio-optical processes and circulation patterns of the northern Adriatic Sea on monthly, seasonal, and interannual scales. The chlorophyll-like pigment concentrations derived from satellite data exhibited a high correlation with sea truth measurements performed during seven surveys in the summer of both years. Comparison of the mean pigment fields indicates a general increase in concentration values and larger scales of coastal features from 1979 to 1980. This variability may be linked to the different patterns of nutrient influx due to coastal runoff in the 2 years. The distribution of surface features is consistent with the general cyclonic circulation pattern. The pigment heterogeneity appears to be governed by fluctuations of freshwater discharge, while the dominant wind fields do not appear to have important direct effects. The Po River presents a plume spreading predominantly in a southeastern direction, with scales positively correlated with its outflow. The spatial scales of the western coastal layer, in contrast, are negatively correlated with this outflow and the plume scales. Both results are consistent with, and may be rationalized by, recent theoretical and experimental results involving a dynamical balance between nonlinear advection and bottom friction, with alternate predominance of one of the two effects.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 12957-12
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: The improvement in the climatological behavior of a numerical model as a consequence of the assimilation of surface data is investigated. The model used for this study is a quasigeostrophic (QG) model of the Gulf Stream region. The data that have been assimilated are maps of sea surface height that have been obtained as the superposition of sea surface height variability deduced from the Geosat altimeter measurements and a mean field constructed from historical hydrographic data. The method used for assimilating the data is the nudging technique. Nudging has been implemented in such a way as to achieve a high degree of convergence of the surface model fields toward the observations. Comparisons of the assimilation results with available in situ observations show a significant improvement in the degree of realism of the climatological model behavior, with respect to the model in which no data are assimilated. The remaining discrepancies in the model mean circulation seem to be mainly associated with deficiencies in the mean component of the surface data that are assimilated. On the other hand, the possibility of building into the model more realistic eddy characteristics through the assimilation of the surface eddy field proves very successful in driving components of the mean model circulation that are in relatively good agreement with the available observations. Comparisons with current meter time series during a time period partially overlapping the Geosat mission show that the model is able to 'correctly' extrapolate the instantaneous surface eddy signals to depths of approximately 1500 m. The correlation coefficient between current meter and model time series varies from values close to 0.7 in the top 1500 m to values as low as 0.1-0.2 in the deep ocean.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA-CR-204983 , NAS 1.26:204983 , Journal of Physical Oceanography: Part 1; 25; 6; 1153-1173
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: The dynamical consequences of constraining a numerical model with sea surface height data have been investigated. The model used for this study is a quasigeostrophic model of the Gulf Stream region. The data that have been assimilated are maps of sea surface height obtained as the superposition of sea surface height variability deduced from the Geosat altimeter measurements and a mean field constructed from historical hydrographic data. The method used for assimilating the data is the nudging technique. Nudging has been implemented in such a way as to achieve a high degree of convergence of the surface model fields toward the observations. The assimilation of the surface data is thus equivalent to the prescription of a surface pressure boundary condition. The authors analyzed the mechanisms of the model adjustment and the characteristics of the resultant equilibrium state when the surface data are assimilated. Since the surface data are the superposition of a mean component and an eddy component, in order to understand the relative role of these two components in determining the characteristics of the final equilibrium state, two different experiments have been considered: in the first experiment only the climatological mean field is assimilated, while in the second experiment the total surface streamfunction field (mean plus eddies) has been used. It is shown that the model behavior in the presence of the surface data constraint can be conveniently described in terms of baroclinic Fofonoff modes. The prescribed mean component of the surface data acts as a 'surface topography' in this problem. Its presence determines a distortion of the geostrophic contours in the subsurface layers, thus constraining the mean circulation in those layers. The intensity of the mean flow is determined by the inflow/outflow conditions at the open boundaries, as well as by eddy forcing and dissipation.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA-CR-205501 , NAS 1.26:205501 , Journal of Physical Oceanography; 25; 6; 1130-1152
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: Non-tidal sea level anomalies (SLAs) can be produced by many different dynamical phenomena over many time scales, and they can induce serious damages in coastal regions especially during extreme events. In this work, we focus on the SLAs in the South China Sea (SCS) to understand whether and how they can be related to the large-scale, seasonal monsoon system which dominates the SCS circulation and dynamics. We have two major objectives. The first one is to understand whether the NE (winter) and SW (summer) monsoons can be responsible for the persistent SLAs, both positive and negative, observed at the SCS ends along the main monsoon path. The second objective is to understand the SCS response as a free system upon onset/relaxation or sudden changes in the forcing wind. It is well known that sudden changes in the forcing mechanism induce free oscillations, or seiches, in closed, semi-enclosed basins and harbors, and we want to identify the possible seiche modes of the SCS. To our knowledge, these two objectives have not been previously addressed. We address these objectives both through observational analysis and modeling simulations. Multi-year tide-gauge data from stations along the coastal regions of the SCS are analyzed examining their spatial correlations. Strong negative correlations are found between the northeast and southwest stations at the two ends of the SCS under the path of the NE/SW monsoons. They correspond to wind-induced positive/negative sea level set-ups lasting for the entire monsoon season and changing sign from winter to summer. Short periods of negative correlations are also found between the SLAs at eastern and western stations during El Niño years in which the monsoons are weaker and have an enhanced E/W component inducing corresponding sea level set-ups. The tide-gauge station at Tanjong Pagar at the southwest SCS end near Singapore is chosen to study four extreme SLAs events in the observational record during 1999. Modeling simulations are carried out to reproduce them. The observed and modeled extreme SLAs agree quite well, both in the amplitude of the highest peak and in phase. Three main peaks are identified in the observational energy spectrum of the de-tided SLAs at the same station in 1999. Using Merian’s formula to evaluate the periods of seiches in idealized basins Wilson (Adv Hydrosci 8:1–94, 1972 ) the first two peaks (24.4 h and 11.9 h) are found to correspond to the first two seiche modes in the direction of the main, longer axis of the SCS. The third peak (8.5 h) is found to correspond to the seiche in the transversal, shorter axis. Finally, modeling simulations are carried out by suddenly dropping a circular bump of water in the quiescent basin at different locations to excite the seiches. The periods of the modeled peaks agree quite well with the observational ones, the first two periods being actually identical. ©2011 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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