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  • 1
    ISSN: 0031-9201
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-06-12
    Description: We provide a complete description of the characteristics of excitation and attenuation of the ground motion in the Lake Van region (eastern Turkey) using a data set that includes three-component seismograms from the 23 October 2011 M w  7.1 Van earthquake, as well as its aftershocks. Regional attenuation and source scaling are parameterized to describe the observed ground motions as a function of distance, frequency, and magnitude. Peak ground velocities are measured in selected narrow frequency bands from 0.25 to 12.5 Hz; observed peaks are regressed to define a piecewise linear regional attenuation function, a set of excitation terms, and a set of site response terms. Results are modeled through random vibration theory (see Cartwright and Longuet-Higgins, 1956 ). In the log–log space, the regional crustal attenuation is modeled with a bilinear geometrical spreading characterized by a crossover distance at 40 km: fits our results at short distances ( r 〈40 km), whereas is better at larger distances (40〈 r 〈200 km). A frequency-dependent quality factor, Q ( f )=100( f / f ref ) 0.43 (in which f ref =1.0 Hz), is coupled to the geometrical spreading. Because of the inherent trade-off of the excitation/attenuation parameters ( and ), their specific values strongly depend on the choice made for the stress drop of the smaller earthquakes. After choosing a Brune stress drop Brune =4 MPa at M w =3.5, we were able to define (1) an effective high frequency, distance- and magnitude-independent roll-off spectral parameter, eff =0.03 s and (2) a size-dependent stress-drop parameter, which increases with moment magnitude, from Brune =4 MPa at M w  3.5 to Brune =20 MPa at M w  7.1. The set of parameters mentioned here may be used in order to predict the earthquake-induced ground motions expected from future earthquakes in the region surrounding Lake Van.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    Description: On 6 April 2009, an earthquake of M w  6.13 ( Herrmann et al. , 2011 ) occurred in central Italy, close to the town of L’Aquila. Although the earthquake is considered to be a moderate-size event, it caused extensive damage to the surrounding area. The earthquake is identified with significant directivity effects: high-amplitude, short-duration motions are observed at the stations that are oriented along the rupture direction, whereas low-amplitude, long-duration motions are observed at the stations oriented in the direction opposite to the rupture. The complex nature of the earthquake combined with its damage potential brings the need for studies that assess the seismological characteristics of the 2009 L’Aquila mainshock. In this study, we present the strong-ground-motion simulation of this particular earthquake using a stochastic finite-fault model with a dynamic corner frequency approach. For modeling the resulting ground motions, we choose two finite-fault source models that take into account the source complexity of the L’Aquila mainshock. In order to test the sensitivity of ground-motion parameters to the seismic wave attenuation parameters, we use two different attenuation models obtained in the study region using weak-motion and strong-motion databases. Comparisons are made between the attenuation of synthetics and ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Synthetic ground motions are further compared with the observed ones in terms of Fourier amplitude and response spectra at 21 strong-ground-motion stations that recorded the mainshock within an epicentral distance of 100 km. The spatial distribution of shaking intensity obtained from the "Did You Feel It?" project and site survey results are compared with the spatial distributions of simulated peak ground-motion intensity parameters. Our results show that despite the limitations of the method in simulating the directivity effects, the stochastic finite-fault model seems an effective and fast tool to simulate the high-frequency portion of ground motions.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-31
    Description: Moment magnitudes differing by up to 0.5 units have been published for the same events of the 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence. With respect to the mainshock that occurred on 20 May 2012, results by Malagnini et al. (2012) and Pondrelli et al. (2012) represent opposite extremes: although the former used model Padania, a region-specific velocity structure based on all the available geological and geophysical information from local studies, the latter used a global crustal model with a set of phase corrections calibrated over the central Apennines by Ekström et al. (1998) . Model Padania well reproduces the observed dispersion of surface-wave group velocities in a band of shorter periods, between 33 and 100 s, whereas Pondrelli et al. (2012) performed their inversions in the 50–150 s period band. Here, we show that because surface waves generated within the thick sediments of the Po river floodplain dominated the seismograms, the source excitation terms that came out of a regression scheme performed on the ground motions recorded during the sequence were systematically affected by a broadband increase of the spectral amplitudes at frequencies below 0.4 Hz (frequency range of the regressions: from 0.1 to 22.5 Hz). As a consequence, the two largest events of the sequence share a common true moment magnitude M w ~5.6, even though their enhanced spectral level from 0.1 to 0.4 Hz is consistent with M w ~6.0. Electronic Supplement: Figures of hypocentral distances, moment tensor (MT) solutions, and site terms from the ground-motion regression; and tables of velocity models and MT solutions.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-24
    Description: Earthquakes triggered by other remote seismic events are explained as a response to long-traveling seismic waves that temporarily stress the crust. However, delays of hours or days after seismic waves pass through are reported by several studies, which are difficult to reconcile with the transient stresses imparted by seismic waves. We show that these delays are proportional to magnitude and that nucleation times are best fit to a fluid diffusion process if the governing rupture process involves unlocking a magnitude-dependent critical nucleation zone. It is well established that distant earthquakes can strongly affect the pressure and distribution of crustal pore fluids. Earth’s crust contains hydraulically isolated, pressurized compartments in which fluids are contained within low-permeability walls. We know that strong shaking induced by seismic waves from large earthquakes can change the permeability of rocks. Thus, the boundary of a pressurized compartment may see its permeability rise. Previously confined, overpressurized pore fluids may then diffuse away, infiltrate faults, decrease their strength, and induce earthquakes. Magnitude-dependent delays and critical nucleation zone conclusions can also be applied to human-induced earthquakes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: Although optimal, computing the moment tensor solution is not always a viable option for the calculation of the size of an earthquake, especially for small events (say, below M w 2.0). Here we show an alternative approach to the calculation of the moment-rate spectra of small earthquakes, and thus of their scalar moments, that uses a network-based calibration of crustal wave propagation. The method works best when applied to a relatively small crustal volume containing both the seismic sources and the recording sites. In this study we present the calibration of the crustal volume monitored by the High-Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN), along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Parkfield. After the quantification of the attenuation parameters within the crustal volume under investigation, we proceed to the spectral correction of the observed Fourier amplitude spectra for the 100 largest events in our data set. Multiple estimates of seismic moment for the all events (1811 events total) are obtained by calculating the ratio of rms-averaged spectral quantities based on the peak values of the ground velocity in the time domain, as they are observed in narrowband-filtered time-series. The mathematical operations allowing the described spectral ratios are obtained from Random Vibration Theory (RVT). Due to the optimal conditions of the HRSN, in terms of signal-to-noise ratios, our network-based calibration allows the accurate calculation of seismic moments down to M w 〈 0. However, because the HRSN is equipped only with borehole instruments, we define a frequency-dependent Generalized Free-Surface Effect (GFSE), to be used instead of the usual free-surface constant F = 2. Our spectral corrections at Parkfield need a different GFSE for each side of the SAF, which can be quantified by means of the analysis of synthetic seismograms. The importance of the GFSE of borehole instruments increases for decreasing earthquake's size because for smaller earthquakes the bandwidth available for our calculations is consistently shifted towards higher frequencies.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1995-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-02-01
    Description: Paleoseismic evidence and seismic-hazard analysis suggest that the City of Rome, Italy, has experienced considerable earthquake ground motion since its establishment more than 2000 years ago. Seismic hazards in Rome are mainly associated with two active seismogenic areas: the Alban Hills and the Central Apennines regions, located about 20 km southeast and 80-100 km east of central Rome. Within the twentieth century, M 6.8 and M 5.3 earthquakes in the Apennines and the Alban Hills, respectively, have generated intensities up to Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale (MCS) VII in the city. With a lack of strong-motion records, we have generated a 3D velocity model for Rome, embedded in a 1D regional model, and estimated long-period (〈1 Hz) ground motions for such scenarios from finite-difference simulations of viscoelastic wave propagation. We find 1-Hz peak ground velocities (PGVs) and peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of up to 14 cm/sec and 44 cm/sec (super 2) , respectively, for a M 5.3 Alban Hills scenario, largest near the northwestern edge of the Tiber River. Our six simulations of a M 7.0 Central Apennine scenario generate 0.5-Hz PGVs in Rome of up to 9 cm/sec, as well as extended duration up to 60 sec. The peak motions are similar to, but the durations much longer than those from previous studies that omitted important wave-guide effects between the source and the city. The results from the two scenarios show that the strongest ground-motion amplification in Rome occurs in the Holocene alluvial areas, with strong basin edge effects in the Tiber River valley. Our results are in agreement with earlier 2D SH-wave results showing amplification of peak velocities by up to a factor of 2 in the alluvial sediments, largest near the contact to the surrounding Plio-Pleistocene formations. Our results suggest that both earthquakes from the Alban Hills and the Central Apennines regions contribute to the seismic hazards in Rome. Although earthquakes from the former area may generate the larger peak motions, seismic waves from the latter region may generate ground motions with extended durations capable of causing significant damage on the built environment.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-04-01
    Description: We produce probabilistic seismic-hazard assessments for the central Apennines, Italy, using time-dependent models that are characterized using a Brownian passage time recurrence model. Using aperiodicity parameters, alpha of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, we examine the sensitivity of the probabilistic ground motion and its deaggregation to these parameters. For the seismic source model we incorporate both smoothed historical seismicity over the area and geological information on faults. We use the maximum magnitude model for the fault sources together with a uniform probability of rupture along the fault (floating fault model) to model fictitious faults to account for earthquakes that cannot be correlated with known geologic structural segmentation. We show maps for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 Hz spectral acceleration (SA (sub 1) ) on rock having 10% probability of exceedence in 50 yr. We produce maps to compare the separate contributions of smoothed seismicity and fault components. In addition we construct maps that show sensitivity of the hazard for different alpha parameters and the Poisson model. For the Poisson model the addition of fault sources to the smoothed seismicity raises the hazard by 50% at locations where the smoothed seismicity contributes the highest hazard and up to 100% at locations where the hazard from smoothed seismicity is low. For the strongest aperiodicity parameter (smallest alpha ), the hazard may further increase 60%-80% or more or may decrease by as much as 20% depending on the recency of the last event on the fault that dominates the hazard at a given site. In order to present the most likely earthquake magnitude and/or the most likely source-site distance for scenario studies, we deaggregate the seismic hazard for SA (sub 1) and PGA for two important cities (Rome and L'Aquila). For PGA both locations show the predominance of local sources having magnitudes of about 5.3 and 6.5, respectively. For SA (sub 1) at a site in Rome, there is significant contribution from local smoothed seismicity and an additional contribution from the more distant Apennine faults having magnitude around 6.8. For L'Aquila the predominant sources remain local. In order to show the variety of impact of different alpha values, we also obtained deaggregations for another three sites. In general, as alpha decreases (periodicity increases), the deaggregation indicates that the hazard is highest near faults with the highest earthquakes rates. This effect is strongest for the long-period (1 sec) ground motions.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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