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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi was sampled from December 2003 to March 2005 in 11 stations located along four regions Anzali, Khazarabad, Tourkman and Gorgan Bay using METU net in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea. Study of stomach contents of M. leidyi showed that Acartia sp. belonging to Copepoda and Lamellibranchia sp. had the highest frequency comprising 66% and 13% of food items taken by the organism respectively and the least food items taken were Balanus nauplii, Rotatoria, Tintinnopsis and Podon polyphemoides. The maximum mean abundance of food item was Acartia sp. which was shown to be present in stomach content of M. leidyi caught in different depths, seasons and regions in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea. For the M. leidyi larvae, the highest amount of food item was Acartia sp. and Lamellibranchia sp. with an average of 44% and 32% and the maximum abundance of food item for juvenile and mature M. leidyi was also Acartia sp. with an average of 67.5% and 66%. The results showed that the main food item for M. leidyi is Acartia sp. of the Copepoda. Hence, M. leidyi feeding has an important effect in declining zooplankton populations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: A comprehensive hydrobiological and hydrological investigation conducted in Anzali lagoon from 1997 to 2000. During this study, a total of 5 phylum and 62 genera of phytoplanktons and 10 phylum and 50 genera of zooplankton were identified. The results showed that for phytoplanktons the abundance of Cyanophyta, Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrophyta were calculated 61.8%, 29.1%, 8.2% 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively. The most abundance of zooplankton belongs to Rotatoria (60.8%), after that other group of zooplankton had more abundance consist of Copepoda and its nauplii (17.2%), Ciliophora (9.6%) and Rhizopoda (6.6%). Other zooplanktons had very few abundance. According to obtained results, western region of lagoon (Abkenar) is a rich region of planktons in which the most dominant phylum of phytoplanktons was from Cyanophyta with genera of Oscillatoria, Anabaenopsis, Microcystis. The most abundance of zooplanktons were genera of Polyarthra, Brachionus and Keratella and from Arthropoda phylum, the most abundance genus was found Cyclops and its nauplii. The Planktonic study indicated that Anzali lagoon is one of the richest lagoon in Iran with high production and potential water for feeding of fishes and their larva.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali wetland having a significant role in the quality and need to be constantly studied in term of their sequence and density. This survey was conducted at 6 stations between March 2011 and February 2012. According to the results, 67 different genera (22 Bacillariophyta, 26 Chlorophyta, 9 Cyanobacteria, 5 Cryptophyta, 1 Euglenophyta, 2 Chrysophyta, 1Dinoflgellata and 1 Xanthophyta) were identified. Most observed in Sorkhankol and Karkan stations with the annual average of 24.4±5.6 and 20.4± 5.4 cells/ liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta particularly Cyclotella was dominant in all of the stations, but high abundance of Cyanobacteria in Karkan station from July to mid-October caused the annual average of this phylum to be more than Bacillariophyta. The highest and lowest phytoplankton abundances were observed in September and December, respectively. The number of phytoplankton genera and diversity in this study were less than previous studies.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: Anzali wetland at south west of Caspian located along of North West and southeast and with its unique feature were add on the Ramsar convention list in 1975. There were recorded a high rich of fauna and flora including 276 plant species, 23 reptiles and amphibians, 60 fishes, 26 mammals and 195 birds. Anzali wetland were encountered with numerous disorder with the eutrophication and the early dismissing. The first studies on Anzali wetland started by many international institutions in 1964. In this study the data of biotic and abiotic factors in Anzali wetland analyzed which belongs to different sites (15 to 38 stations) during 1991 to 2000 and were sampled seasonally or monthly in different years. The results showed the increasing trend of phytoplankton abundance from 7.9 to 66 million C./l. and the western part had the most abundant. The Cyanophyta had the most development than other 7 phylum observed in the area. In Anzali wetland identified 143 phytoplankton genus that 9 genus dominated in more than 80 % replicates and 7 genus had the abundance of more than 5 million cell/l. The Zooplankton abundant increased from 580 to 2200 ind./l. The Rotatoria had the most abundant followed by Copepoda. There was identified 104 zooplankton genus that 5 genus were dominated in more than 80 % replicates and 11 genus had the abundance of more than 30 ind./L. The chlorophyll a varied from 8.8 to 50.2 μg/l. and had a increasing trend after 1996, meanwhile it was measured higher than 25 μg/l in most of the stations. The results of benthic study showed that the Chironomidae and Tubificidae were observed more than other organisms which comprised 12.2 to 23.5% of total biomass of benthic organisms in studied period. The range of biomass was 1.1 to 7.8 g/m2. The ichthyologic survey showed presence of 60 species that 11 species were exotic. 28 species belong to freshwater, 17 species were anadromous and 8 species were resident in estuary. The highest and lowest fish catch were 640 and 288 ton in 1994 and 1999 respectively and it was about 500 ton at the end of period. The hydrochemical factors had the various fluctuation so that the nutrients parameters had a significant difference over studied period. Total nitrogen was varied from 0.78 to 1.41 mg/l and total phosphorus varied from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/l.. The oxygen dissolved amount was from 4.6 to 8.7. EC was between 3 to 5 ms/cm during September and October that indicated of Caspian water projection. According to geographic position of station, all biotic and abiotic data, were arranged. The data bank is used by Idrisi software to produce of necessary maps. Analysis of data showed that there must be a responsible department with a vast authority. Conservation and eutrophication prevention of Anzali wetland connect to special attention to catchment area and landuse management of the wetland. Also there is an urgent need for well-developed technologies and managements to reduce the organic pollution and its environmental impacts on the Anzali Lagoon.
    Keywords: Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: The project was carried out between June of 2011 and November of 2012,8 laboratories of research center in Anzali (Plankton, Algae, Hydrochemistry, Physiology, Ichthyology, Bentose, Parazitology, Virology) and 7 laboratories of research center in Ahvaz (Clinical pathology, Plankton, Hydrochemistry, Physiology, Ichthyology, Bentose, Parazitology, Virology) were selected for accreditation. The main stages for establishment of the system consisted of: 1-Conducting a gap analysis to compare the present state of the laboratories with ISO/IEC 17025 2-Training General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories Validation of methods Estimation of uncertainty Internal audits 3- Performing of technical and management requirements 4-Submit of quality manual to ASCB center in England in order to accredit In August of 2012 The main results were including: 1-Increase the accuracy of measurement in laboratories 2-Improvement of the Repeatability and Reproducibility of the test methods 3-Traceability and standardization of test methods 4- Calibration of measurement instruments 6- Updating of test methods 7-Standardization of physical condition of the laboratories 8- Getting the certification from ASCB center in
    Keywords: Information Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-14
    Description: The aim of this study was to find the best location for establishment of rainbow trout culture and hatcheries farms on Zayanderood’s river region in Charmahal and Bakhtiyari province. This survey carried out over ten station along Zayanderood’s river. The result of physical and chemical analysis showd that the annual average of air temperature varied from 9.5oC - 10oC where the pH annual average value were between 7.5 and 8.8. the dissolve oxygen concentration in stations except in rainbow trout farm effluent were above 10 mg/l. the other chemical , pollutant as well as pesticides levels were under the limiting concentration for rainbow trout culture and Hatcheries activity. The plankton survey showed that the Bacillurophyta were the dominant group of phytoplankton where protozoa constituted the most abundant group of zooplankton the Benthic organisms sensitive to pollutant in particular Epirus were dominant group in all stations. In regard to fishes presence in river, five species of Ciprinidae, one species from Balitoridae and one species from salmonidae families were identified. The capacity for development of rainbow trout culture for tow phase period in Zayanderood’s river region with respect to self purification potential (self purification potential were determined from the oxidation of the effluent of the only active trout farm of the river region), minimum of 10 L/s water requirement for production of trout in concrete canal and pond system and 1 L/S water need for production in semi circular closed system were estimated to be 5202 metric tons.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: Kutum fish (Rutilus kutum) is an anadromous cyprinid species that spawns in adjusted rivers to the Caspian Sea. Many million fingerlings were artificially produced and annually released in these rivers specifically in Sefidrud River by Iranian Fisheries Organization. In this study were estimated the staying period of Kutum fingerlings in Sefidrud River and its diet and growth. A small piece of the caudal fin was cut as a tagging method. About 50000 and 5200 individuals were marked during July and September 2013, respectively. The marked fish had an average total length 53.2±5.6 mm and body weight 1.11±0.26 g and were released in river around two kilometers of the estuary. The sampling of fishes had been earlier started from Feb. 2012 and continued until Feb. 2013 at five stations. Four stations were along river from three Kilometer of estuary to estuary and one station was in right side of estuary in the sea coast. The results showed that marked samples after releasing time were distributed in all studied area from 3 kilometers of estuary to estuary but they migrate mainly toward Caspian Sea in a short time. However the marked samples were observed in estuary and the sea coast after 6 and 24 hours of their releasing time, respectively, Kutum fingerlings remained in Sefidrud river ecosystem in a longer time, at least until end of our sampling period i.e. 105 days. The coefficient of vacuity index of the natural feeding study was 0.0, 49.0 and 30.6 % for phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, respectively. The average of GastroSomatic index, intensity of fullness and condition factor were calculated 6.30±3.25, 174.6±153.2 and 0.92±0.09, respectively. A temporal and spatial variation on main food items were observed in gut content of fish fingerlings from different locations and seasons. Gut contents were generally included 59 genera of phytoplankton, 15 groups of zooplankton and 10 groups of benthos. Nitzschia, Navicula and Synedra were dominated among phytoplankton genera with 45.83, 18.02 and 15.99 %, respectively. Among zooplankton groups; the Rotaria, Moeina and Difflugia were dominated with 22.30, 20.86 and 15.83%, respectively. Chironomidae and Gammaridae were the main food items among fed benthic animals with 83.67 and 11.15%, respectively. Furthermore 48 phytoplankton genera, 32 zooplankton genera and 6 benthic families were identified in ecosystem of Sefidrud river. Bacillariophyta phylum (with 23 genus), Rotatoria (with17 genus) and Chironomidae family were dominated in each mentioned groups, respectively. It is concluded that the Kutum fingerlings stay in Sefidrud River for a long time, although most of them migrate to Caspian Sea during first month after releasing. However dietary indices were normal in studied samples, the condition factor index seems to be low.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important places for spawning fishes and zooplankton groups are the first consumer in this ecosystem. They are the perfect food for the larvae of fishes. Zooplankton status was evaluated in 6 stations of different areas of the Anzali wetland during March 2011 to February 2012. Sampling was done by tube (PVC) and passing through of 30 micron planktonic net. The samples were identified and counted by invert microscope. According to the results were identified 60 Genus and 6 phylum (11, 31, 10, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2 genus of phylum Protozoa, Rotatoria, Arthropoda, Gastrotricha, Mollusca, Tardigrada, Nematoda, Porifera, Annelida) respectively. The results showed that the maximum annual average density of zooplankton was observed with 2497 number per liter in Karkan station and the population was more in the summer than in other seasons. Phylum of Rotatoria,, protozoa and superclass Copepoda formed 48, 45 and 6percent of the density respectively. According to the results the population of zooplankton did not change much compared to past studies, excluding Protozoa but the diversity of all zooplankton group are declined very much. According to the statistical analysis Kruskal Wallis are not significant differences between density of zooplankton in different stations, months and seasons (p 〉 0.05), but significant differences were found in different phylum together (p〈0.05).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Use and enrichment of live food resource in fish farms have been interested and highly demanded. Crustacean are one of the important groups. The Pontogammarus maeoticus dominated in southern Caspian Sea shore with a high abundance. This study was designed in order to adaptation and usage of amphipoda in fish culture ponds. The first part have been surveyed the laboratory experiments including of; to increasing and developing of P.maeoticus in 200 litter container, the effects of salinity on growth and survival of amphipods in many aquariums, the culture of common carp with amphipods and growth determination of them. Chemical composition analysis of P.maeoticus and carps fed by amphipods in compare to cultured carps from ordinary ponds. Due to concern about common healthy the heavy metal concentration has been measured in P. maeoticus, carp which were fed by amphipods and the cultured carps in earth ponds. In second phase; the adaptation of two amphipods species, P. maeoticus and Obesogammarus acuminatus was studied in fish ponds where some cages with sandy soft substrate had been provided for amphipoda replacement. Also a small surface of ponds surrounded by net and covered by Azola plant, a habitat suitable for to putting of O. acuminatus. Production of amphipoda had not the successfully results in large tanks. Aquariums with Caspian Sea water had the prosper results where the specimens were breeding and developing properly, even though in some aquarium with freshwater increased the amphipods number. The chemical composition had not significant difference between two kind of cultured carps while the organic component in amphipoda had a high quality. The better quality of cultured carp by amphipod diet have been confirmed by organoleptic test. The results of heavy metal measurement in amphipoda showed a high concentration which some of them were transmitted to cultured carps. Result of amphipoda replacement in cage was not satisfy and the specimens were died after some days. According to hydro-chemical parameters the oxygen poorness and high trophy levels were the affective factor to abolish of specimens in cages. It seems that there are many type of P.maeoticus that can be adapted in different salinities. The molecular differentiation should be investigated to choose the suitable type of this spices for utilization in freshwater fish ponds. In other hand it can be used in fish culture ponds that will be supplied by brackish water.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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