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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali wetland having a significant role in the quality and need to be constantly studied in term of their sequence and density. This survey was conducted at 6 stations between March 2011 and February 2012. According to the results, 67 different genera (22 Bacillariophyta, 26 Chlorophyta, 9 Cyanobacteria, 5 Cryptophyta, 1 Euglenophyta, 2 Chrysophyta, 1Dinoflgellata and 1 Xanthophyta) were identified. Most observed in Sorkhankol and Karkan stations with the annual average of 24.4±5.6 and 20.4± 5.4 cells/ liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta particularly Cyclotella was dominant in all of the stations, but high abundance of Cyanobacteria in Karkan station from July to mid-October caused the annual average of this phylum to be more than Bacillariophyta. The highest and lowest phytoplankton abundances were observed in September and December, respectively. The number of phytoplankton genera and diversity in this study were less than previous studies.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: Plankton samples were collected in 28 stations in Anzali Lagoon and nearby coastal areas during 1997-1999. Overall, 9 phyla, 134 genera and 278 phytoplankton species were identified. Of the identified species, 56 genera and 107 species belonged to phylum Chlorophyta, 39 genera and 87 species belonged to Bacillariophyta, 2 genera and 2 species were from Xanthophyta, 4 genera and 4 species belonged to Chrysophyta, 6 genera and 34 species were from Euglenophyta, 7 genera and 9 species belonged to Pyrrophyta, I genus and 2 species were from Cyanophyta, 18 genera and 32 species were from Cyanophyta and I genus and species was of Rhodophyta. We showed Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta to be the most abundant phyla and western and southern parts of the lagoon the richest in terms of phytoplankton diversity and density. Cyanophyta planktons were the most abundant in summer in western part of the lagoon and were comprised of Microcystis aeruginosa, Oscillatoria limosa and Anabaenopsis raciborskii. Diatoms were observed throughout the year everywhere in the lagoon with their diversity being highest in late autumn, winter and spring. The dominant species of Bacillariophyta were Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra ulna and Nitzschia acicularis in the lagoon while Rhizosolenia calcar was dominant in estuarine and coastal areas during summer. Of Chlorophyta, species belonging to Scenedesmus were abundant in spring and of Euglenophyta, Euglena acus and Trachelomonas armata were most abundant in southern part of the lagoon in spring and summer. Gymnodinium coronatum from Pyrrophyta was abundant in summer in western part of the lagoon while Exuviaella cordata was dominant in estuary and coastal areas during autumn.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: A Comprehensive hydrobiological and hydrological investigation was conducted on Hevigh River, west of Guilan Province from 2001 to 2002. Totally, 4 Phyla of phytoplanktons including 21 genera were observed. The maximum phytoplankton density belonged to the Phylum Chrysophyta with genera, Nitzchia, Diatoma, Cocconeis, Navicula and Cymbella comprising 95.7% of the phytoplankton population throughout the year. Chlorophyta ranked second with genera Scenedesmus, Cruciginia and Anicistrodesmus, comprising 2.20% of the population during the year. Cyanophyta with Oscillatoria and Euglenophyta with Euglena consisted the remaining few percents of the phytoplankton population. Zooplankton population in Hevigh River was found to be very poor, and mostly belonged to Protozoa and Rotatoria. However, 4 Phyla and 12 genera of zooplanktons were distinguished in the River the highest density of which belonged to Protozoa with genera Amelia, Difflugia, Cyphoderia and Euglypha, comprising 64% of the total population. Rotatoria with genera Keratella, Cephalodella, Lecane and Rotaria, consisted 14% of the zooplankton population during the year. Arthropoda, Nematoda, Tardigrada were very low in numbers.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: The Caspian goby, Neogobius caspius, is an endemic species of Gobiidae family in the Caspian Sea and it has ecological importance (as food for Caspian commercial fish such as sturgeons). The main aims of this study are, studying distribution, length, weight and age structure, sex ratio, diet, reproduction biology and morphological characters of this species in Guilan coast at waters of the Caspian sea and the sampling has been done monthly from Oct. 2005 to Sep. 2006 in 4 station from Astara to Chaboksar, with bottom trawl which had 12.5 meter length, 4.7 meter gape width and 2 mm mesh size in code end. The results showed N. caspius abundance is 9.82±11.93% of Gobiids and 7.92±10.10% of total fish numbers sampled in the study area (13824 specimens belong to 16 fish species) and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. CPUA of N.Caspius was estimated 52.5±105.9 ind/hec and 412.7±770.7 g/hec and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. Maximum body weight, total length and age were measured 65.10 g, 176 mm and 6 years old with an average 8.74±9.9 g, 84.83±28.4 mm and 1.83 years old, respectively and maximum age of males and females was 6 and 5 years old respectively and there were significant differences among stations and seasons and between sexes. It was estimated algometric growth model from length-weight regression, coefficient of K Von Bertalanffy growth model was estimated 0.42 and 0.68 in male and female, respectively. Sex ratio was 1.27 female to 1 male. Coefficient vacuity, relative gut length and intensity of 169 fullness were 8.72%, 0.76±0.17 and 267.7±263.3 for, respectively and Caspian goby fed on 30 different prey consist Zooplanktons (8 types), Benthic animals (15 types) and fishes (7 types) and young and yearlings have fed mainly mixed food (zooplankton and benthic animals) and adults on zoobenthose. Gammarids, Bivalvia, Cumaceae and Vormes constituted 44.7, 38.9, 24.8 and 19.7 % of prescence in full-gutted samples respectively, they were mainly preys (number and weight), hence this species is considered as euryphagus, carnivorous, benthphagus species. It was determined, Caspian goby spawns from March until last June, males and females take part in spawning in 2.8g and 65 mm and 1.3 g and 52 mm, respectively. Length at 50% maturity (LM50) was 80.2 and 77.5 mm in males and females, respectively. Maturity took place at 2 years old for both sexes, too. The absolute fecundity was estimated 109-1350 (451.6±216.3) eggs and relative fecundity 18-80 (36.8±9.2) eggs per one grams of body weight and diameter of ripe eggs was measured 1.31-2.60 (2.18±0.19) mm. Morphologically, there were 15 morphologically significant statistical differences between males and females and 15 differences among stations, sexual dimorphism was observed, too.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi was sampled from December 2003 to March 2005 in 11 stations located along four regions Anzali, Khazarabad, Tourkman and Gorgan Bay using METU net in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea. Study of stomach contents of M. leidyi showed that Acartia sp. belonging to Copepoda and Lamellibranchia sp. had the highest frequency comprising 66% and 13% of food items taken by the organism respectively and the least food items taken were Balanus nauplii, Rotatoria, Tintinnopsis and Podon polyphemoides. The maximum mean abundance of food item was Acartia sp. which was shown to be present in stomach content of M. leidyi caught in different depths, seasons and regions in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea. For the M. leidyi larvae, the highest amount of food item was Acartia sp. and Lamellibranchia sp. with an average of 44% and 32% and the maximum abundance of food item for juvenile and mature M. leidyi was also Acartia sp. with an average of 67.5% and 66%. The results showed that the main food item for M. leidyi is Acartia sp. of the Copepoda. Hence, M. leidyi feeding has an important effect in declining zooplankton populations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In 1999 Mnemiopsis leidyi was introduced to the Caspian Sea from the Black Sea with ballast waters from the ships. The comprehensive study on probability of controlling Caspian Sea invasive Ctenophora planned after a remarkable of decreeing in Kilka fish catches stocks and fisheris community problems. This study focus on reproduction experiments of Beroe ovata as the best candidate for control of Mnemiopsis population size in the Caspian Sea that was performed in Turkey and Iran during 2002-2003. At 2002, 87 specimens of B. ovata, 10-50 mm transferred to Caspian sea ecology research center from Marmareh sea where acclimated with Caspian sea water gradually. At 2003, experiments were performed near to Black sea (at Sinop) with freshly collected Beroe ovata, 40-65 mm size in three salinity level treatment, the Black sea water 18 , Mixed water 15 and Caspian water 12 . 130 individuals of Beroe ovata were brought from Sinop (Turkey) to Iran during 2003. A number of Beroe specimens were sent to Guilan province for reproduction studies and another part were sent to Mazandaran province for both reproduction and mesocosem studies. For control we had 1 Beroe, length 30 mm in the Black Sea water that was alive during of study in Iran. The Jars were examined each day for ova and larvae and they were collected and put into glass container of Caspian water for hatching and developing survey, some of them were left without any handling for larvae developing. Also in another experiment the eggs collected from jars were placed in the same three treatments for studying of growth and survival. The results were unsuccessful on propagation experiments at 2002 since the spawning and hatching rates were very low (20 ova) and, none of the larvae developed into adults in Caspian Sea water. The spawning was more in Marmareh sea water with 138 ova where only 7 larvae was hatched. Results showed that Beroe specimens is able to survive and reproduce in Caspian water but was not as well as Black Sea also the Beroe larvae growth rate is low in the Caspian Sea water. Maximum fecundity of Beroe individual was 2212 and 235 ovae in Caspian Sea water in site Sinop and Iran respectively. Results showed 34-100% eggs in Caspian Sea water were destroyed and did not develop. In Iran we obtained only one larvae with 5 mm length, other larvae were at different stages of development but most of them were 1.2 2 mm. The results of mesocosm survey showed most of ova and larvae have been obtained from the tanks where individuals B. ovata were with Mnemiopsis. Fecundity of Beroe in the control with Black Sea water were between 17 to 1879 with average of 828 ± 112 ova. The poor results of B. ovata reproduction obtained in this survey in Caspian Sea may be due to transportation and acclimation stress and low salinity of Caspian Sea water.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: This project has been started as monitoring study since 2001 that in first phase has lasted for two years and because of its importance, it was decided that this study should be continued for two other years. In the early 1980s, an alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi already known as a gelatinous zooplankton was transported (likely via ballast waters) to the Black Sea from its native waters of the western Atlantic. The possibility of Mnemiopsis leidyi introduction into other sensitive, neighboring ecosystems, notably the Caspian Sea, had been mentioned during the GESAMP meeting in 1994. And, as expected, this ctenophore was reported to be present in the Caspian Sea by November 1999. In this report, spatial and temporal distribution of M. leidyi had been investigated in southern Caspian Sea (Iranian waters) in 6 transects consisted of Lisar, Anzali, Sefidroud, Nowshar, Babolsar and Amirabad at 24 stations during 2003 and 2004. As a whole, 818 samples had been analyzed included 236, 302, 136 and 144 belong to ctenophore, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos. Meantime 811 physicochemical parameters had been measured. Water temperature varied between 7.8 to 29.3 co. Transparencies also fluctuated from 0.20 to 10.5 m. Salinity in different regions was from 7.80 to 13.90 ppt and the average was 12.09 ppt. pH was between 7.2- 8.6. Demand oxygen (O2) has been measured very high in water surface (12.89 µg.l) and it decreased at minimum level in deep down to 4 µg.l. Nutrients measurements such as NO_2, NO_3 and NH_4 were 0.10-15.17 , 3.80- 133.40 and 0.36- 86.40 µg.l, respectively. Total nitrate and phosphate were measured between 337.00- 1635.00 and 14.90-103.40 µg.l, respectively. Comparison of M. leidyi distribution in the southern Caspian Sea shown that maximum abundance recorded in warm summer months (e.g. August) with 11627 ind.m^2 and its biomass maximum was in autumn months (September and October) about 446.11 gr.m^2 . Mean abundance and biomass of M. leidyi were 2504 ind.m^2 and 142.42 gr.m^2, respectively. Maximum size of the ctenophore recorded as 70 mm while the less than 10 mm length frequency consisted 92.2 per cent of total population. Spatial distribution of M. leidyi in different regions shown that Sefidroud not only had the maximum Mnemiopsis abundance but also consisted higher biomass in the southern Caspian Sea in 2003-4. At present study, 142 phytoplankton species were identified which belongs to Chrysophyta (67, 48), Chlorophyta (23, 16%), Cyanophyta (22, 15%), Pyrhophyta (21, 15%) and Euglenophyta (9, 6%). Mean phytoplankton abundance and biomass were 11137032 ind. m^3 and 40.26 mg. m^3, respectively. Chrysophyta (diatoms) consisted 42 and 47% of whole phytoplankton abundance and biomass. In the other hand, this group included 50 % of phytoplankton population. In zooplankton study, there were identified 21 species in which 10 species were only meroplankton (zoobenthic) and 11 species was holoplankton. These species belongs to Copepoda (4, 37%), Rotatoria (4, 36%), Cilliophora (2, 18%) and Cladocera (1, 9%). Monthly zooplankton abundance and biomass data shown that its population completely effected by Copepoda. Among copepoda, Acartia clausi was the main species duri ng 2003-4. As a whole, maximum abundance recorded in spring (March) and autumn (September) about 11497 and 11321 ind. m^3 while its maximum biomass occurred in summer (August) with 48.95 mg. m^3. Zooplankton minimum abundance and biomass were in wintertime about 3894 ind. m^3 and 10.16 mg. m^3. Benthic fauna in recent study consisted 27 species included Gammaride (8, 29%), Cumacea (7, 26%), Polychaeta (4, 15%), Bivalvia (3, 11%) and Oligochaeta, Balanidae and Xantidae each one (4%) species. Mean benthic abundance and biomass were 1215 ind. m^ 2 and 20.09 g. m^2, respectively. Polychaeta and Oligochaeta were established maximum frequency about 49 and 34% of total fauna while Bivalvia consisted 82.8% biomass overall.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Mnemiopsis leidyi is one the species of comb-jelly. It belongs to the Ctenophora phylum and Lobata order. Mnemiopsis leidyi first appear in the Black Sea in 1980s and reached to the biomass levels up to 1.5-2 kg m^2 in the summer of 1989. This species is food rival of pelagic fish. It has been reported that the ctenophora caused the dramatic decrease of zooplankton and pelagic fish stock in the Black Sea. In this study, sampling on Mnemiopsis leidyi, zooplankton and phytoplankton started from July to December 2002 from a total of 2 stations located Anzali and Khazarabad by METU net in the Iranian Coasts of the Caspian Sea. Experimental studies on Mnemiopsis have indicated that Mnemiopsis begins to produce eggs in the Caspian Sea, when it reaches length about 15 mm. Although eggs were obtained even from specimen with 12 mm length and weight of 0.5 g. The most abundant size of reproducing Mnemiopsis was 20-30 mm in the Caspian Sea. Average fecundity of M.leidyi in the Caspian Sea was 1174±741 eggs/day with maximum 2824 eggs/day for specimens with length group of 30-39 mm and the weight about 2.0-2.7 g. Percentage of hatched eggs was not high in experiments with M.leidyi the range from 9 to 92 % after 24 hours. The maximum produce egg of M.leidyi measured with mean 845±733 eggs/day in Salinity of 11 ppt and the minimum egg recorded with mean 2 eggs/day in salinity of 4 ppt. The results showed that the biomass of M.leidyi had some fluctuation in different months and its maximum biomass was recorded in August with a figure of 384±156 g.m2 and the minimum biomass was observed in December with a figure of 87±46 g.m^2 . The gut contents of Mnemiopsis leidyi showed a wide variety of prey including 84 % of zooplanktons and 16% of Phytoplanktons.The most abundance of in taked foods was Acartia (belong to Copepoda) with 34 % and the least was podon polyphemoides (belongs to Cladocera) with 0.74 %. Also 3.0 % of fish eggs and 4.2 % of Lamllibrachia were found among stomach contents. The young specimen (5〈 mm) consumed more zooplanktons and phytoplanktons comparing to adult ones. Copepoda was dominant zooplankton in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea. Fecundity of Mnemiopsis showed correlation to the length and wet weight in the Caspian Sea and reproduction of M.leidyi was done small size in comparing with other area in the Caspian Sea. Salinity, water temperature and food availability is the most important factor in producing eggs in M.leidyi. It seems, that Mnemiopsis leidyi feeding has been one of the most important factor in declining zooplankton populations and Clupeonella stocks.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali lagoon that have a significant role in the quality of water and the need to be constantly study their sequence and density. The survey was conducted in six workstations March 1389-Feb 2012. Samples were taken for a liter of water with plicae (P.V.C) and fixed with formalin to 4% ratio. Five ml of the sample after becoming homogeneous, was sequestration for 24 hours in the laboratory and identified and counted by invert microscope. Based on the results of this reviews 67 genus (22, 26, 9, 5, 1, 2, 1, and 1 genus respectively of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta branches, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, the Xanthophyta) were identified. The results showed that the phytoplankton density was the most in Sorkhankol and Komeh Aghajani stations with annual average of 24387483±5643414 and 20381250 ± 5488084 per liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta ( particularly Cyclotella) was dominant in all of stations but high density of blue green algae (Cyanophyta) in Komeh aghajani station from July to mid-October have caused the annual average of these phylum is more than Bacillariophyta. In General, the average density of phytoplankton was the highest in summer than other seasons and was the lowest value in the fall. The number of the genus identified in this survey is less than previous studies. Compare this survey with the last studies reviews shows that diversity is reduced in the current situation in the Anzali than previous studies. According to the statistical analysis of the Kruskal Wallis, the density of phytoplankton had no significant differences in the different months, stations and seasons (p〉0.05) but the phytoplankton phylums have significant differences (p〈0.05) together.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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