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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Five rocket-triggered cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were detected by the operational lightning-locating system at the NASA Kennedy Space Center on August 17, 1984. The locating system, which was designed to detect natural lightning, detected at least 2 and as many as 6 strokes in the triggered flashes, suggesting that some of the strokes in the triggered lightning had signal-amplitude and waveshape characteristics similar to natural lightning. However, not all triggered strokes were detected, indicating that some strokes were atypical in nature. Since the ground-strike points of the triggered flashes were known quite precisely, the accuracy of the lightning-locating system was also evaluated. The three direction finders were found to have a mean bearing accuracy of + or - 0.5-0.6 deg. The distance errors of the real-time position solutions of the locating system on the triggered flashes were in the range of 195-770 m, with a mean of 480 m.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Data derived from a large network of electric field mills are used to determine the average diurnal variation of lightning in a Florida seacoast environment. The variation at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station area is compared with standard weather observations of thunder, and the variation of all discharges in this area is compared with the statistics of cloud-to-ground flashes over most of the South Florida peninsula and offshore waters. The results show average diurnal variations that are consistent with statistics of thunder start times and the times of maximum thunder frequency, but that the actual lightning tends to stop one to two hours before the recorded thunder. The variation is also consistent with previous determinations of the times of maximum rainfall and maximum rainfall rate.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Monthly Weather Review (ISSN 0027-0644); 112; 1134-114
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC.JA.6251.2012
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-08-19
    Description: Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes, but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-10
    Description: Cubic Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO) garnets stabilized by substitution of Li by supervalent cations (Al 3+ , Ga 3+ and Fe 3+ ) are exceptionally well suited to be used as protecting layer to enable Li-metal based battery concepts. On the one hand this dopants are needed to provide the outstanding properties of LLZO at room temperature (RT), but on the other hand dopants occupying Li sites are suspected to hinder the long-range Li-ion transport properties within the structure. This depends on the type of dopant species and their amount in the LLZO garnet. In particular, the way these dopants can be distributed in the garnet structure is thought to play a critical role in the Li-diffusion behaviour. This short review addresses the difficulty to obtain structural information on minor amounts of cations in a large complicated structure such as LLZO by diffraction methods and the advantages of the application of complementary spectroscopic methods, such as Mößbauer and NMR spectroscopy, which provide information on the valence state and the distribution of the dopants Al, Ga, and Fe over the possible cation positions of the garnet structure. Finally, ( i ) NMR spectroscopy at very high magnetic fields (21.1 T) shows that Al and Ga are similarly distributed over the 24 d and 96 h sites in the garnet structure and ( ii ) Mößbauer spectroscopy proves that Fe occurs in the trivalent state, also at the 24 d and 96 h sites of the cubic garnet framework. The solubility limit of Fe, Al, and Ga is up to 0.25 pfu, 0.39 pfu, and 0.72 pfu, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 0935-1221
    Electronic ISSN: 1617-4011
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Schweizerbart
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-17
    Description: Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production. Statistical analysis revealed significant delineation among cyanobacterial communities from different trophic classes. Multivariate regression indicated that geographical features (latitude, longitude and altitude) were significant in driving cyanobacterial community structure; however, partitioning of their effects varied among trophic categories. High-throughput sequencing was undertaken on selected samples to investigate their taxonomic composition. The most abundant and diverse (71 operational taxonomic units) taxon across all lake types was the picocyanobacteria genus Synechococcus . Cyanotoxins (microcystins n = 23, anatoxins n = 1) were only detected in eutrophic lowland lakes. Collectively, these data infer that increasing eutrophication of lakes will have broad-scale impacts on planktonic cyanobacteria diversity and the prevalence of cyanotoxins.
    Print ISSN: 0168-6496
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-6941
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Most delivery systems for small interfering RNA therapeutics depend on endocytosis and release from endo-lysosomal compartments. One approach to improve delivery is to identify small molecules enhancing these steps. It is unclear to what extent such enhancers can be universally applied to different delivery systems and cell types. Here, we performed a compound library screen on two well-established siRNA delivery systems, lipid nanoparticles and cholesterol conjugated-siRNAs. We identified fifty-one enhancers improving gene silencing 2–5 fold. Strikingly, most enhancers displayed specificity for one delivery system only. By a combination of quantitative fluorescence and electron microscopy we found that the enhancers substantially differed in their mechanism of action, increasing either endocytic uptake or release of siRNAs from endosomes. Furthermore, they acted either on the delivery system itself or the cell, by modulating the endocytic system via distinct mechanisms. Interestingly, several compounds displayed activity on different cell types. As proof of principle, we showed that one compound enhanced siRNA delivery in primary endothelial cells in vitro and in the endocardium in the mouse heart. This study suggests that a pharmacological approach can improve the delivery of siRNAs in a system-specific fashion, by exploiting distinct mechanisms and acting upon multiple cell types.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: Nature Physics 9, 329 (2013). doi:10.1038/nphys2615 Authors: M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier & M. S. Kim
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Ever increasing global population requires to find additional options or increase the efficiency of food and feed supply to fulfil its dietary needs. In agricultural sector, competing situations with energy su...
    Electronic ISSN: 2192-0567
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-08
    Description: Author(s): J.-H. Röckemann, L. Schaper, S. K. Barber, N. A. Bobrova, G. Boyle, S. Bulanov, N. Delbos, K. Floettmann, G. Kube, W. Lauth, W. P. Leemans, V. Libov, A. R. Maier, M. Meisel, P. Messner, P. V. Sasorov, C. B. Schroeder, J. van Tilborg, S. Wesch, and J. Osterhoff A 1-mm diameter, 7.5-mm long active plasma lens produces magnetic field gradients exceeding 800 T/m, with high stability and potentially small emittance growth. [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 21, 122801] Published Fri Dec 07, 2018
    Keywords: Beam Control, Diagnostics, and Feedback
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-4402
    Topics: Physics
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