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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Science in context 4 (1991), S. 407-427 
    ISSN: 0269-8897
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: History , Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The ArgumentThis paper argues that different epistemic styles exist in science, and that these make up an important unit of analysis for studying science. On occasion these different sets of commitments to ways of doing and knowing about the world may fall along national boundaries. The case presented here examines German and American embryology around 1900 and shows that differences in goals and approaches make up different epistemic styles.In particular, the Germans sought causal mechanical explanations of as many phenomena as possible, guided by strong theories which achieved confirmation when they fit with as much of the available data as possible. The Americans, in contrast, sought definitive facts, as many as possible, which might be quite specific or narrowly based. These facts could lead to empirical generalizations which, in turn, could guide the generation of new knowledge in the form of new facts. Thus, the two epistemic styles emphasized different goals, processes of investigation, and standards of evidence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 367 (1994), S. 29-29 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IF Krishna Dronamraju's // / am to be Remembered had appeared earlier, we might have been able to say "Well, it's about time that someone took Julian Huxley seriously". Unfortunately for Dronamraju, Waters and van Helden's excellent edited volume appeared at about the same time and has made ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 407 (2000), S. 21-21 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] “The magnitude of the problem of development, whether onto- genetic or phylogenetic, has been underestimated,” wrote Edmund Beecher Wilson. “Yet the splendid achievements of cell-research in the past twenty years showed us the promise of the possibilities for the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 369 (1994), S. 716-717 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IT is difficult to tell for whom this book is intended. Lois Magner sees the volume as useful for a one-term introductory course as well as for general readers and teachers. Yet the price precludes its use as a course textbook, and the choice of publisher makes it fairly inaccessible to a general ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 363 (1993), S. 409-410 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] GENETICISTS, Jonathan Harwood con-tends, showed two different predomi-nant styles of thought between the First and Second World Wars. Indeed, he suggests that these styles characterize German scientists more generally and may extend beyond Germany because they represent alternative responses to ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 378 (1995), S. 108-109 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] TWENTY years ago, Garland Alien published his Life Science in the Twentieth Century. The first chapter included a seven-page section on "The Science of Morphology", which Alien defined in terms of the study of living forms, tracing common evolutionary ancestors and using the comparative method to ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of the history of biology 26 (1993), S. 167-183 
    ISSN: 1573-0387
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , History
    Notes: Conclusion Clearly, researchers collaborate for a variety of intellectual and social reasons: to get help, to combine expertise, to gain credibility, or to create a community. No one model will hold for all cases. Similarly, no one simplistic set of rules to guide scientific conduct and guarantee scientific integrity will suffice either. Instead, those prescribing professional behavior must recognize the various types and levels of collaboration, the reasons for the collaboration, and the implications of each case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of the history of biology 32 (1999), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 1573-0387
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , History
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biology and philosophy 15 (2000), S. 339-348 
    ISSN: 1572-8404
    Keywords: historiography of science ; interdisciplinary studies ; scientific change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract David Hull has demonstrated a marvelous ability to annoy everyone who caresabout science (or should), by forcing us to confront deep truths about howscience works. Credit, priority, precularities, and process weave together tomake the very fabric of science. As Hull's studies reveal, the story is bothmessier and more irritating than those limited by a single disciplinaryperspective generally admit. By itself history is interesting enough, andphilosophy valuable enough. But taken together, they do so much in tellingus about science and by puncturing the comfortable popular illusion abouthow science works. Ultimately, David Hull shows by his example thathistory and philosophy of science can make science better. I agree, and withits focus on the history of science in particular, this paper explores why.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biology and philosophy 6 (1991), S. 227-254 
    ISSN: 1572-8404
    Keywords: Abstract(ion) ; cell ; cytology ; diagram ; drawing ; fact ; knowledge ; photograph ; Wilson
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract Diagrams make it possible to present scientific facts in more abstract and generalized form. While some detail is lost, simplified and accessible knowledge is gained. E. B. Wilson's work in cytology provides a case study of changing uses of diagrams and accompanying abstraction. In his early work, Wilson presented his data in photographs, which he saw as coming closest to “fact.” As he gained confidence in his interpretations, and as he sought to provide a generalized textbook account of cell development, he relied on increasingly abstract diagrams. In addition, he came to see that highly abstract and even schematic drawings could provide more than pictures directly from life.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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