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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: This Research has been done monthly in Sefidroud River and its tributaries from Agust 2003 to July 2004. From the total number of 2027 specimens of caught fish, 800 and 629 were males and females respectively, and 598 specimens were undistinguished. Samples were caught by cast nets. Fork length range of all specimen was 33-255 mm (119.56 ±46) and their weight rang was 0.42-257.5 gr (34.4 ±39.06) gr and their age range was 0-5 (1.76 ±0.959) year. The average of relative frequency in C.c.gracilis was 65.1 % . The average of condition factor was 1.07±0.13. Between Fork length and weight of C.c.gracilis. Was exponential relation and coefficient of correlation was estimated 99.11%. Growth cofficient (k) was 0.114 ; L_∞ was estimated 373.5 mm. C.c.g consumed of Chrysophyta phylum more than other Phytoplankton phyla in Sefidroud river and from Bentic point of view, consumed of clay, Filamentous algae detritus, insects, seeds. Absolute fecundity range was 1823-9274 (4553.8 ±2169.1) eggs. Considering the GSI and frequency percent of maturity stages, spawning period of the fish begins from April and peak of spawning is in June and terminates in July.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: The Goal of project implementation was survey of biological roles of Northern pike, Esox lucius, in decreasing of Coarse fish and other un economics organisms in carps ponds and also increasing of final crops in hectare and determination of Suitable ration of pike in ponds. This project implemented by 5 treatment with 3 replicates for every ones in 2 years. The pike density was 200, 350, 500 and 650 fish individuals per hectare for 1, 2, 3 and 4 treatment, respectively, and fifth treatment was without pike. The treatments of 1 and 3 conducted in first year and other in second year of test period. At first, about 26 brooders Caught from Anzali Lagoon, and reproduced by artificial and semi - natural methods in Sefidroud Fisheries Research Station in 12–14 °c temperature. Produced larvae reared in earthen ponds and fries reached to weight of 10 -12 g after 45 days. Mean weight, length and survival rates of fish was 12.27 and 32.5 g, 11.44 and 15.83 cm, and 40 and 21% after 45 and 60 days, respectively. The carp density in ponds was 3500 fish individuals per hectare and stocking rates were 55 % silver carp, 20 % common carp, 10 % bighead carp and 15 % grass carp. In throughout of the experiment period, physico– chemical factors measured and plankton (phyto and zoo), benthos, un wanted fish and other organisms investigated. The biomass of unwanted fishes reduced to 76/81 and 60/6 % in first and second year of experiments respectively. The results showed that Esox lucius had effect in increasing of objective fish produce about 17.9 % and 3.9 % in first and second period of project implementation respectively. The average of fish produce in pond unit (2400 m^2)was 842 kg (3508 kg/ha ), 825 kg (3439 kg/ha) and 776 kg (3232 kg/ha) in first , second and control treatments first year of test period , and also in second year was 865 kg (3603 kg/ha), 877 kg (3652 kg/ha) and 848 kg (3531 kg/ha) in second , fourth and control treatments , respectively. A significant different found in final weight mean of common carp between treatments and Control ponds (P 〈0/05), as the weight of common carp in treatments ponds was 220 % in first year and 191 % in second year more than control pond. In end of the trial, the mean weight of Esox lucius was 265 ± 74, 276 ± 104, 159 ± 33 and 265 ± 89 g in 1, 2, 3 and 4 treatment, respectively. Survival rate of Northern pike in 1 to 4 treatment was 43.8, 55.2, 40 and 35.6 %, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: 500000 juvenile Indian majour carps (Labeo rohita,Cirhinus merigala, Catla catla) imported (2004) and transferred to the earthen ponds in Shahid Ansari Carp Breeding Center , In order to assess the viability of rearing under the climatic condition of north part of Iran and also achieve some growth parameters from the larval stage to market size.The fry with 300 mg weight, were released in to 8 ponds.specimens were separated to tree experimental categories: 1= (Labeo rohita) , 2= (Cirhinus merigala) , 3= (Catla catla). fishes were fed with artificial food and also with the natural products of the ponds which were enriched with organic fertilizers, after being equally stocked in the ponds .During the experiment, oxygen level ,PH, turbidity, and temperature were measured . Monthly fry samples were taken, for weight and length biometrical analysis and also determination of the weight gain percentage, average daily growth rate, specific growth rate. Results have indicated adaptations and considerable growth in this species, with an increase from the initial weight of 300 mg to an average of 13.5±1.6 mg in 50 days period until the end of November for fingerlings. Also the average weight of growing phase (second year of production) was 647g. For Labeo rohita ,420 g. for Cirhinus merigala and 734g. For Catla catla. The special growth rate(SGR)in Roho was 4.51 %.and 3.9 % for merigal and6.2 % for Catla while for Chinees carps SGR was 4.9, 6.7, 7.6 and 5.8 for silver carp,grass carp, common carp and big head respectively. Results revealed that the Indian majour carps compatibility with the condition in Gilan province was succesfull and the combination of species and optimization of their compatibility were remind for further studies.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: Caspian trout (Salmo trutta caspius ) is one of the migratory fish species which lives and feeds in the Caspian Sea .This species distributed in south and western of the Caspian Sea . In order to rehabilitation of the Caspian trout in western area, the operation of the project started from the beginning of the fishing season of the 20112012. Specimens of the Caspian trout obtained from beach seine cooperatives and have been transferred to the fish farm in Asalem region .Totally, 44 specimens of the Caspian trout has been caught in two month period .Most of the fishes was from Kargan roud river . The mean length and weight of the brood fishes were 67.7 cm and 3122.7 g respectively .As at present Shilat uses just the broods of the Tonekaboon region for restocking of this species ,we recommend to use the broods of the western region separately for rehabilitation of the stocks of this region .
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: Kutum fish (Rutilus kutum) is an anadromous cyprinid species that spawns in adjusted rivers to the Caspian Sea. Many million fingerlings were artificially produced and annually released in these rivers specifically in Sefidrud River by Iranian Fisheries Organization. In this study were estimated the staying period of Kutum fingerlings in Sefidrud River and its diet and growth. A small piece of the caudal fin was cut as a tagging method. About 50000 and 5200 individuals were marked during July and September 2013, respectively. The marked fish had an average total length 53.2±5.6 mm and body weight 1.11±0.26 g and were released in river around two kilometers of the estuary. The sampling of fishes had been earlier started from Feb. 2012 and continued until Feb. 2013 at five stations. Four stations were along river from three Kilometer of estuary to estuary and one station was in right side of estuary in the sea coast. The results showed that marked samples after releasing time were distributed in all studied area from 3 kilometers of estuary to estuary but they migrate mainly toward Caspian Sea in a short time. However the marked samples were observed in estuary and the sea coast after 6 and 24 hours of their releasing time, respectively, Kutum fingerlings remained in Sefidrud river ecosystem in a longer time, at least until end of our sampling period i.e. 105 days. The coefficient of vacuity index of the natural feeding study was 0.0, 49.0 and 30.6 % for phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos, respectively. The average of GastroSomatic index, intensity of fullness and condition factor were calculated 6.30±3.25, 174.6±153.2 and 0.92±0.09, respectively. A temporal and spatial variation on main food items were observed in gut content of fish fingerlings from different locations and seasons. Gut contents were generally included 59 genera of phytoplankton, 15 groups of zooplankton and 10 groups of benthos. Nitzschia, Navicula and Synedra were dominated among phytoplankton genera with 45.83, 18.02 and 15.99 %, respectively. Among zooplankton groups; the Rotaria, Moeina and Difflugia were dominated with 22.30, 20.86 and 15.83%, respectively. Chironomidae and Gammaridae were the main food items among fed benthic animals with 83.67 and 11.15%, respectively. Furthermore 48 phytoplankton genera, 32 zooplankton genera and 6 benthic families were identified in ecosystem of Sefidrud river. Bacillariophyta phylum (with 23 genus), Rotatoria (with17 genus) and Chironomidae family were dominated in each mentioned groups, respectively. It is concluded that the Kutum fingerlings stay in Sefidrud River for a long time, although most of them migrate to Caspian Sea during first month after releasing. However dietary indices were normal in studied samples, the condition factor index seems to be low.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The Caspian Sea with brackish water is known as typical environment due to geo position, precious biota and the largest land-enclosed drainage area in the world. Macrobenthos were performed the main group of the Caspian Sea fauna. While they use as environmental bio-assessment, they have not completely studied in the Caspian Sea especially in estuaries environments. In this survey were studied eighteen river estuaries in Guilan province off Caspian sea southwest including Asrara, Chelevand, Lemir, Havigh, Shirabad, Khotbesara, Lisar, Karganroud, Navroud, Nokandekeh, Sefidrud, Heshmatrud, Langerud, Polerud and Chabokrud. The macro-invertebrate sampling was conducted seasonally at eight stations during autumn 2008 to autumn 2009. The macrobenthos organisms were identified as possible level in genus or species. The Shannon Wiener diversity and the Hilsenhoff biotic indices were used for evaluation of environmental quality. In this study, 69 genus identified that belong to 36 families and 16 orders. The most presentation of genus belongs to Chironomidae family with twenty six genus while others families were included forty three genus. The most average of macro-invertebrate abundance belong to order of Diptera with 35 %, subsequently the abundance of Amphipoda and Bivalvia orders occupied the second rank with 8.2 %. Orders Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Cumacea had a low abundance during the study, however the Polychaeta showed a high abundance in some seasons and stations (up to 25%). The Plecoptera was rarely observed in some stations with high abundance. The Stenogammarus genus had the normally distribution during study, while Chironomidae genera as Eukifferiella and Cricotopus were measured in the high abundance during autumn 2008 to spring 2009. While Streblospio and Limnodrilus had the high presentation during winter and spring 2009, Cerastoderma sp. showed a high percentage in spring and summer 2009. The result of Shannon Wiener index values showed a significantly difference among regions for most seasons. There was also observed significantly difference for diversity values among stations in different seasons. According to Hilsenhoff biotic index for water quality classification; the most stations had good quality in spring 2009, while they were slightly and moderately good condition in winter 2009. The water quality of the Caspian Sea stations was in good condition as compared with the rivers estuary stations.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: The Caspian goby, Neogobius caspius, is an endemic species of Gobiidae family in the Caspian Sea and it has ecological importance (as food for Caspian commercial fish such as sturgeons). The main aims of this study are, studying distribution, length, weight and age structure, sex ratio, diet, reproduction biology and morphological characters of this species in Guilan coast at waters of the Caspian sea and the sampling has been done monthly from Oct. 2005 to Sep. 2006 in 4 station from Astara to Chaboksar, with bottom trawl which had 12.5 meter length, 4.7 meter gape width and 2 mm mesh size in code end. The results showed N. caspius abundance is 9.82±11.93% of Gobiids and 7.92±10.10% of total fish numbers sampled in the study area (13824 specimens belong to 16 fish species) and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. CPUA of N.Caspius was estimated 52.5±105.9 ind/hec and 412.7±770.7 g/hec and there were significant differences among stations and seasons. Maximum body weight, total length and age were measured 65.10 g, 176 mm and 6 years old with an average 8.74±9.9 g, 84.83±28.4 mm and 1.83 years old, respectively and maximum age of males and females was 6 and 5 years old respectively and there were significant differences among stations and seasons and between sexes. It was estimated algometric growth model from length-weight regression, coefficient of K Von Bertalanffy growth model was estimated 0.42 and 0.68 in male and female, respectively. Sex ratio was 1.27 female to 1 male. Coefficient vacuity, relative gut length and intensity of 169 fullness were 8.72%, 0.76±0.17 and 267.7±263.3 for, respectively and Caspian goby fed on 30 different prey consist Zooplanktons (8 types), Benthic animals (15 types) and fishes (7 types) and young and yearlings have fed mainly mixed food (zooplankton and benthic animals) and adults on zoobenthose. Gammarids, Bivalvia, Cumaceae and Vormes constituted 44.7, 38.9, 24.8 and 19.7 % of prescence in full-gutted samples respectively, they were mainly preys (number and weight), hence this species is considered as euryphagus, carnivorous, benthphagus species. It was determined, Caspian goby spawns from March until last June, males and females take part in spawning in 2.8g and 65 mm and 1.3 g and 52 mm, respectively. Length at 50% maturity (LM50) was 80.2 and 77.5 mm in males and females, respectively. Maturity took place at 2 years old for both sexes, too. The absolute fecundity was estimated 109-1350 (451.6±216.3) eggs and relative fecundity 18-80 (36.8±9.2) eggs per one grams of body weight and diameter of ripe eggs was measured 1.31-2.60 (2.18±0.19) mm. Morphologically, there were 15 morphologically significant statistical differences between males and females and 15 differences among stations, sexual dimorphism was observed, too.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: According to the importance of micro-algae in aquatic feed such as fish in this study have been investigated Preparation of useful algae powder or concentrate for breeding silver carp , their impact on the growth of silver carp , rate per unit area and estimate n economic Development. Different algal species were isolated from hydrothermal fish farms, then were purified and mass culture . The next step microalgae were dried and powdered by spray dryer and were examined the fish feeding on them. During this study, 6 species of chlorophyt( Scenedesmus obliquus, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Chlorella vulgaris, Pediastrum boryanum, Pandorina morum, Ankistrodesmus falcatus) ,3 species of cyanophyta ( Anabaena flosaquae, Oscillatoria agardhi and Spirulina platensis) and 1 species of Bacillariophta ( Cyclotella meneghiniana were isolated from.Green algae and Blue -green algae were cultured in Zaindr medium, diatoms were cultured in Zaindr medium but with water of Anzali logoon and also in F2 medium with artificial sea water and spirulina was cultured in Zarouk medium. Microalgae were cultures then concentrated.Then the impact was examined on fish silver carp 2 to 3 grams. The results showed that Cyclotella has a greater role in the growth of silver carp and Anabaena floes aquae and Spirulina platensis tend to growth less than cyclotella. Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus acuminatus were respectively next algae that showed the greatest impact on fish growth. Scenedesmus obliquus feed rate was greater than any other algae for Daphnia.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: The present study was conducted to survey the artificial spawning of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) by synthetic hormones include Carp pituitary extract (CPE), Ovo fact [D-Ala6 des Gly10] GnRHa Ethyl amid in combination with domperidone diluted in propylene glycol, Human gonadotropin chryonic hormone (HCG) and LHRHa (des-Gly10, [D-Ala6] LH-RH Ethyl amide). In this research work 44 male and 72 female brood stokes that transferred to the Shaheed Dr Ansari hatchery and Sefid rod research station were studied on 2 years and injected with those stimulated maturation. Total length, total weight, gonad weight were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm, 1g and 0.01g respectively. The experiments were conducted using different doses of hormones on 4 treatments. In treatment CPE that brood stocks injected with 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 mg/kg/BW, the most responded (83.33%) was with 5mg/kg/Bw of CPE. The mean fertilization in this treatment was 92.5 4.51 and after that there are groups which were stimulated by 4 mg/kg/BW of CPE .In treatment ovafact that brood fish were injected by 10, 20, 30, 40 μg/kg/BW of this stimulation hormone showed 100 percent of fish ovulated in the group treated with 40 μg/kg/BW of ovofact. The mean fertilization rate was 86.08 6.27 in this group. 33.3 % of brood fish ovulated in the group that injected with 40 μg/kg/BW of LHRHa stimulation, but none of brood stock reached to spawning with injection of 30 μg/kg/BW of LHRHa. The brood stocks were injected by 800, 850, 900, 950 IU/kg/BW of HCG, only 33.3 percent of fish in groups that received 900 & 950 IU/kg/BW of this Stimulation hormone reached to spawning stages. According to our results and statistical analysis between trial treatments in percent of Embryo viability showed significant difference (P〈0.05) between HCG treatment with Ovofact and CPE groups. This results indicates that embryo viability was better in CPE and Ovofact rate to LHRHa and HCG treatments. In the other cases include the working fecundity, fertilization percent, latency period of maturation, latency period of incubation eggs and ratio of weigh stripped egg to body weight did not show any significant difference (P〈0.05) in experimental treatments for stripping the male brood stock of European catfish were injected by 3,4,5 mg/kg/BW of CPE, but not one of male brood fish didn’t reaches to stripping stage , so for eggs fertilization were used of milt from macerated Testes of dead males. So in anther experiment the male brood fish were injected by 5 mg/kg/BW CPE repeatedly at once every 5 days for Period 20 day’s period and milt were collected from of all of the males.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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