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  • 1
    Description / Table of Contents: The seismically and volcanically active East African Rift System is an ideal laboratory for continental break-up processes: it encompasses all stages of rift development. Its northernmost sectors within the Afar volcanic province include failed rifts, nascent seafloor spreading, and youthful passive continental margins associated with one or more mantle plumes. A number of models have been proposed to explain the success and failure of continental rift zones, but there remains no consensus on how strain localizes to achieve rupture of 125–250 km thick plates, or on the interaction between the plates and asthenospheric processes. This collection of papers provides new structural, stratigraphic, geochemical and geophysical data and numerical models needed to resolve fundamental questions concerning continental break-up and mantle plume processes. It focuses on how mantle melt intrudes and is distributed through the plate, and how this magma intrusion process controls along-axis segmentation and facilitates break-up.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VII, 327 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862391963
    Language: English
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The various granitic rocks of Leicestershire observed at Mountsorrel, Countesthorpe, Croft, Enderby, Stoney Stanton and in the recent NCB borehole at Kirby Lane, south-west of Melton Mowbray (Fig. 1) are considered to be the surface expression of a large calc-alkaline granitic pluton1'2. These ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In August 1985 the crustal structure underlying the southern part of the Kenya Rift Valley was investigated by long-range explosion seismology. the experiment (KRISP 85) consisted of two seismic lines in the central sector of the rift, one along the axis and the other across it. Interpretation of the data, including time-term analysis and ray tracing has shown that the thickness of rift infill varies from about 6km below Lake Naivasha to about 2 and 1.5km below Lake Magadi and Lake Bogoria respectively. the underlying material has a P-wave velocity of 6.05 ± 0.03 km s-1 which suggests that the rift is underlain by Precambrian metamorphic basement. A localized high-velocity zone identified to the east of Nakuru may be due to basic intrusive material. the P-wave velocity increases discontinuously to 6.45 ± 0.2 km s-1 at a depth of 12.5 ± 1.0 km below sea level. This depth is similar to that inferred for the brittle-ductile transition zone from a study of local seismicity in the Lake Bogoria region. A high P-wave velocity layer (7.1 ± 0.2 km s-1) occurs at 22 ± 2 km depth below sea level which might be associated with a sill-like basic intrusion in the lower crust. an upper mantle velocity of 7.5 ± 0.2 km s-1 (unreversed) is reached at a depth of 34.0 ± 2.0 km below sea level. This implies that only moderate crustal thinning has occurred beneath the central sector of the rift. No evidence was obtained for the existence of a continuous‘axial intrusion’reaching to shallow levels below the rift and associated with crustal separation as suggested by previous studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: During the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP 90) a 450 km long E-W seismic-refraction/wide-angle-reflection profile involving the deployment of 250 instruments was shot across the Kenya Rift. A reflected phase recorded between distances of 260 and 350 km from a 1000 kg shot at the western end of the line in Lake Victoria has been interpreted as originating from about 60 km beneath the western margin of the rift.Detailed processing of this phase has resulted in defining its polarity in relation to the first-arrival diving wave at the same range. Extensive kinematic and dynamic modelling shows there is a high-velocity zone at depths below 60 km under the western flank of the rift. We cannot exclude the presence of a layered alternating high-low-velocity structure as found in the upper mantle beneath the northern part of the N-S seismic profile along the rift axis.Constraints from xenolith studies indicate that anisotropy may explain the high velocity found beneath the reflecting horizon (≥8.40km s−1). Petrological modelling shows that if the anisotropy is due to the preferred orientation of olivine crystals, then either a transverse isotropic structure, in which the ‘a’ and ‘c’ axes are randomly orientated in the horizontal plane, or an orthorhombic structure, in which the fast ‘a’ axis is orientated along the direction of the E-W seismic line, is possible. The reflection could also be caused by a pre-rift structure associated with the Proterozoic collisional orogen involving the Mozambique Orogenic Belt and the Archaean Nyanza Craton, whose contact is subparallel to and lies about 70 km to the west of the Tertiary rift. The evidence presented here delimits the lateral extent of the upper-mantle region of anomalously low-velocity material that is confined to below the surface expression of the rift itself at depths below 60 km.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Previous seismicity studies in the Kenya Rift have not been able to determine accurately depths of earthquakes, nor have most of them determined epicentres precisely enough to allow correlation of the seismicity with particular surface features. We operated a small dense seismic array for 3 months near Lake Bogoria in the Kenya Rift with the aim of locating microearthquakes in 3-D. 572 earthquakes, 81 per cent with ML 〈 1.0, have been located. The majority of the events are associated with the larger older faults on the Rift shoulder rather than the young ‘grid’ faults in the centre of the Rift. Seismic activity in the central trough cannot be related directly to the surface faulting; we infer that it indicates the presence of deep buried faults. This possibility has important implications for extension estimates and models of the Rift. Most of the activity occurs at depths less than 12 km, and no normal activity is deeper than 16 km. There is a peak in seismic activity at a depth of 9–10 km and the cut-off depth for brittle failure is taken at 12 km. The depth distribution of these earthquakes is similar to that found in other intracontinental areas with similar heat flow which suggests that the crust beneath the Kenya Rift is of normal rheology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0956
    Keywords: Nuclear explosion detection and recognition ; Seismology ; Remote sensing ; Radioactivity ; Ionospheric effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society's Joint Association for Geophysics and VERTIC (the Verification Technology Information Centre) held in London in 1992. The topics presented focused on the detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions. The objective of the meeting was to emphasize the multi-methodological approach that is important in verifying compliance with test-ban treaties. An overview of seismological monitoring was followed by a discussion of the technical and scientific aspects of a global seismic monitoring network, and in particular of the 1991 experiment to test the large-scale international exchange of seismic data between recording stations and data centres world-wide. The current capabilities of satellite remote-sensing were presented, and their use explained in terms of both the provision of information for monitoring the development of foreign nuclear testing programmes and also for providing sufficient information for the evaluation of treaty compliance. A review of radio-isotope sampling showed how the isotopic signature of both air and ground based sampling programmes can be diagnostic of the nuclear source. Finally, previously classified research on the ionospheric effects of underground nuclear explosions was presented, the generated acoustic waves disturbing the ionosphere and producing detectable changes in the reflection of radio and radar signals which have potential as a monitoring technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
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    In:  Lithospheric structure, evolution and sedimentation in continental rifts : proceedings of the IGCP 400 Meeting, 20 - 22 March 1997, Dublin ; Year: 1997 ; Pages: 38-41
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 8
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    In:  Geophysical Journal International ; Year: 1990 ; Volume: 100 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 107-130
    Publication Date: 2013-10-17
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-10-17
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Description: The Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) seismic refraction-wideangle reflection experiments carried out between 1985 and 1994 show abrupt changes in Moho depths and Pn phase velocities as the rift boundaries are crossed. Beneath the rift flanks, normal Pn phase velocities of 8.0-8.3 km s-1 are observed, except for the Chyulu Hills volcanic field, east of the rift, where it is 7.9-8.0 km s-1. Also to the east, some of the thickest crust (38-44 km) encountered so far beneath Kenya has been observed over a distance of c. 300 km. However, beneath the surface expression of the rift itself, the uppermost mantle velocity of the Pn phase is anomalously low at 7.5-7.8 km s-1 throughout ist length. Beneath the rift itself, there are major differences in crustal thickness, extension and upper mantle velocity structure between the north and the south. Beneath the section from the centre of the Kenya Dome southwards, where the extension is estimated to be 5-10 km, the crust is thinned by c. 10 km to a thickness of 35 km, and the narrow low-velocity zone in the mantle extends to a depth of at least 65 km. However, in the north beneath Turkana, where the extension is 35-40 km, the crust is only c. 20 km thick and two layers with velocities of 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1 are embedded in the low velocity mantle material at depths of 40-45 km and 60-65 km. this mantle velocity structure indicates that the depth to the onset of melting is at least 65 km beneath the northern part of the rift and is thus not shallower than the corresponding depth (45-50 km) in the south. These results, taken together with those from teleseismic studies, petrology and surface geology, have been used to deduce that anomalously hot mantle material appeared below the present site of the Kenya Rift c. 20-30 Ma ago. This led to widespread volcanism along the whole length of the rift and modification of the underlying crust by mafic igneous underplating and intrusion.
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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