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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Instrumental neutron activation analysis /INAA/ was applied to measure trace elements in head hair of 19 patients with impaired renal function /14 males and 5 females/ and of 40 normal individuals /20 males and 20 females/. It was the aim to use head hair as a possible indicator of total body trace elements status and to investigate whether significant changes occur as a result of chronic hemodialysis. The elemental concentrations of 20 elements /i.e. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ag, Cd, Sb, I and Au/ are presented and compared with published data. The present study revealed that the hair of the dialysis patients contained about ten times more iodine than that of the control group. No significant differences were observed for the other elements measured, except for sodium and antimony.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The chemical composition of aerosols emitted during coal combustion was studied as a function of particle size down to 0.01 μm. The aerosol collections were carried out in a 81 MW capacity boiler that burned Venezuelan coal in a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. The samples were analyzed with upstream of the electrostatic precipitator using a Berner low-pressure impactor, which was quipped with a cyclone pre-cutter to avoid overloading of the first impaction stages. The samples were analyzed by INAA for up to about 40 elements. The elemental concentrations in the particulate matter for each impaction stage were plotted as a function of stage number (particle size). For the elements Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Ga, La and Sm, the concentration variation was limited to a factor of 2 to 4, and the concentrations of these elements were lower for the initial and final impactor stages than for the intermediate particle sizes. The variations were also limited to a factor of 2–4 for Mn, Fe, As, Sb and Th, butall these elements showed increasing concentrations with decreasing particle size. Still other elements, such as Ni, Cr, Co, Za, W, Mo and the halogens, were highly enriched (up to 20–100 fold) in the fine particles when compared with the coarse particles.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract As part of the SAFARI-92 biomass buming experiment, aerosol collections were carried out with several size-fractionating sampling devices at a number of sites in Southern Africa. One of the samplers used at all ground-based sites was a stacked filter unit (SFU). The SFU samples were analyzed by both INAA and PIXE analysis. The present paper gives an intercomparison of the analytical results obtained in order to assess the accuracy and to check the quality assurance of the analytical procedures. Twenty-one common elements were determined by both INAA and PIXE. Concentrations of 13 elements (i.e., Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br) were generally measured with sufficient precision in both techniques for performing the intercomparison. The INAA and PIXE data were compared in terms of PIXE/INAA concentration ratios on a sample by sample basis for the coarse and fine size fraction separately. the atmospheric concentrations for K, Mn and Fe agreed within 5–10%, the agreement between the data for the other common elements was typically better than 15%. Possible explanations for lower than 1.0 ratios for Cl, Br and Na are presented. The common elements were classified into groups according to their detectability and sensitivity in each technique.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected during spring sampling campaigns in 1988 and 1989 at Birkenes and Nordmoen in southern Norway. The aerosol collectors used included stacked filter units (SFUs), a low volume sampler (referred to as ILVS), which consists of a filter preceded by three impaction stages, and an 11-stage Berner low-pressure impactor (LPI). All samples were analyzed for up to about 40 elements by INAA and PIXE. The resuls obtained from parallel samplings were intercompared in terms of ratios ILVS/SFU and LPI/SFU, whereby these ratios were calculated separately for the coarse and fine size fractions. For the ILVS/SFU parallel samplings, excellent agreement was observed between the results for the fine fraction, with the overall mean average ratio (based on 21 samples and 22 elements) being 0.99±0.10. For the coarse fraction, the overall mean ILVS/SFU ratio (based on 21 elements) was 0.75±0.13. This low result is explained by different upper-particle-size cut-offs of the two samplers. For the parallel samplings with LPI and SFU, the agreement was poorer, but still reasonable. The atmospheric concentrations observed at the two sites in the two campaigns and also the LPI size distributions for the various elements are discussed briefly.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: acid precipitation ; base cations ; emissions ; airborne concentrations ; deposition in Europe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Mineral dust in the atmosphere is generally alkaline, and is a source of base cations in precipitation. Annual emissions of particles from large combustion plants and industrial processes in Europe is of the order of 24 million tonnes, and the calcium content may be as high as 1.4 million tonnes. Emissions from diffuse sources such as agricultural activities, construction and quarrying are much less well known. Emissions of dust from the Sahara have been estimated to more than 200 tonnes, with a calcium content of 3–5%. In northern Europe, airborne concentrations of calcium and the concentration of calcium in precipitation are generally consistent with the anthropogenic emissions and their regional distribution. Transport of dust from Sahara is a major source of base cations in precipitation around the Mediterranean Sea, but the influence diminishes further north. The concentration of calcium in precipitation decreases from south to north and from east to west in Europe. Dry deposition of alkaline particles is not well documented, but may be at least as high as the input by precipitation in regions where there are large emissions. There are still large uncertainty gaps with respect to emissions, transport and deposition of calcium-containing particles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: biomass burning ; aerosols ; trace element ; flux ; emission factor ; savanna
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract As a part of the FOS/DECAFE experiment, aerosol particles emitted during prescribed savanna fires were collected in January 1991 at Lamto (Ivory Coast), either close to the emission or in ambient air. Analytical transmission electron microscopy pointed out the presence of sub-micrometer soots, salt condensates, vegetation relicts and soil derived particles. The samples were also analyzed for their total particulate matter (TPM) content and elemental composition by PIXE or XRF. At the emission, high concentrations of soil derived elements (Fe and Al) pointed out an intense remobilization process during the fires. Biomass burning emissions contributed to more than 90% of the measured concentrations, of P, Cl, S, K, Cu and Zn, which were found primarily in the fine fraction with the exception of P. Near the emission, K was mainly present as KCl, evolving to K2SO4 in the ambient samples. Trace elements emission factors were obtained for the first time for the African savanna burning and their annual emissions were estimated: our median K emission factor (0.78 g/kg of C) is higher than estimates for other ecosystems (0.2–0.58 g/kg of C); Zn emissions (0.008 Tg/year) account for 4 to 11% of the global anthropogenic emissions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Optimized PIXE procedures were applied to the analysis of up to 18 elements in certified biological reference materials. The exercise indicated that the total random error of the results from one single target analysis is in the range of 2–5% for elements heavier than K and for levels from 2 μg/g on. The accuracy of the PIXE procedures is shown to be better than 5%.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This study contains a practical application of variance analysis for the evaluation of precision in selected ion monitoring using stable isotope variants or chemically related compounds as internal standards. Variance analysis is applied to determine the relative contributions of the errors due to long-term and short-term effects of instrument stability. The technique allows the resolution of variance due to sample manipulation from that introduced by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry instrumentation. This provides an objective measure of potential internal standards. Evaluation of the dependency of these erros upon concentration indicates appropriate weighing factors to be applied for regression analysis.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Analytica Chimica Acta 75 (1975), S. 31-39 
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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