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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Ionics 74 (1994), S. 85-101 
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Keywords: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) ; Kronig-Kramers analysis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Ionics 5 (1981), S. 137-140 
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0920-5632
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diflunisal ; smoking ; pharmacokinetics ; sex-differences ; oral contraceptive steroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The single dose pharmacokinetics of diflunisal were studied in 4 groups of 6 young volunteers: control men, control women, women taking low estrogen oral contraceptive steroids (OCS), and women smokers (10–20 cigarettes/day). The plasma clearance of diflunisal was significantly higher in men (0.169 ml·min−1·kg−1) and in women on OCS (0.165 ml·min−1·kg−1) as compared to control women (0.108 ml·min−1·kg−1). Partial metabolic clearances of diflunisal by the three conjugative pathways (phenolic and acyl glucuronide formation, sulphate conjugation) were all increased in men and women OCS users as compared to control women. Statistically significant increases, however, were only observed for the partial metabolic clearance of diflunisal by phenolic glucuronidation between men and women (2.91 vs. 1.85 ml·min−1 respectively), and for the partial clearance by acyl glucuronidation between OCS users and control women (4.81 vs. 3.01 ml·min−1 respectively). Smoking resulted in a moderate increase (35%) in plasma diflunisal clearance. However, a significant reduction in total urinary recovery of diflunisal and its glucuronide and sulphate conjugates was found in smokers (70.5% in smokers as compared to 84.2–87.2% in the 3 other study groups). Consequently, smoking may have induced hydroxylation, a minor oxidative metabolic pathway of diflunisal recently discovered in man.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diflunisal ; Probenecid ; steady state pharmacokinetics ; glucuronidation ; drug interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of diflunisal and its glucuronide and sulphate conjugates was studied in 8 healthy volunteers. Diflunisal 250 mg b. d. was administered p. o. for 15 days and its steady state pharmacokinetics was evaluated on Day 16 after the last dose (control phase). Probenecid 500 mg b. d. was co-administered throughout the entire study period in the treatment phase of the study. The steady state plasma concentration of diflunisal was significantly higher during the probenecid treatment phase as compared to the control phase (104.0 vs. 63.1 μg·ml−1). This was the result of a significant decrease in the plasma clearance of diflunisal from 5.8 (control) to 3.4 ml·min−1 (probenecid co-administration). The metabolite formation clearances of both glucuronides were significantly decreased by probenecid, -45 % and -54 % for the phenolic and acyl glucuronide, respectively. The metabolite formation clearance of the sulphate conjugate was not affected by probenecid co-administration. Steady state plasma concentrations of the sulphate and glucuronide conjugates of diflunisal were 2.5- to 3.1-fold higher during probenecid co-administration, due to a significant reduction in the renal clearance of the three diflunisal conjugates. Probenecid also reduced the plasma protein binding of diflunisal, but only to a minor extent; the unbound plasma fraction of diflunisal at steady state averaged between 5 and 30 % higher during probenecid co-administration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diflunisal ; Cirrhosis ; glucuronidation sulfation ; protein binding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of diflunisal, a salicylate derivative that undergoes phenolic and acyl glucuronidation as well as sulphate conjugation, has been studied after a single oral dose (250 mg) in patients with cirrhosis (n=5) and in healthy controls (n=5). The plasma clearance of total (bound + unbound) diflunisal was 10.2 ml · min−1 in the control subjects and it was not affected by cirrhosis (10.9 ml · min−1). The plasma protein binding of diflunisal was significantly reduced in cirrhosis; the percentage of unbound diflunisal in plasma was 0.089 in the controls and 0.147 in the patients with cirrhosis. Plasma clearance of unbound diflunisal was significantly impaired in cirrhosis: 11.51 · min−1 in control subjects vs 7.41 · min−1 in cirrhotics. In cirrhotic patients, the unbound partial clearances to the phenolic and acyl glucuronides were both significantly reduced, by approximately 38%. The unbound partial clearance to the sulphate conjugate was not significantly affected by cirrhosis. The results show that both the phenolic and acyl glucuronidation pathways of diflunisal are equally susceptible to the effects of liver cirrhosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The visual computer 6 (1990), S. 153-166 
    ISSN: 1432-2315
    Keywords: Octree ; Ray tracing ; Space subdivision ; Splitting plane ; Surface area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Ray tracing requires testing of many rays to determine intersections with objects. A way of reducing the computation is to organize objects into hierarchical data structures. We examine two heuristics for space subdivisions using bintrees, one based on the intuition that surface area is a good estimate of intersection probability, one based on the fact that the optimal splitting plane lies between the spatial median and the object median planes of a volume. Traversal algorithms using cross links between nodes are presented as generalizations of ropes in octrees. Simulations of the surface area heuristic and the cross link scheme are presented. These results generalize to other hierarchical data structures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 59 (1994), S. 181-188 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 66.90.tr ; 77.22.Gm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Nowick and his associates have stated that many ionic crystals and glasses exhibit a loss per cycle which is independent of frequency over an appreciable range and have suggested that such behavior constitutes a “new universality”. Furthermore, much such data seem to approach an asymptotic, nearly temperature-independent ac loss at sufficiently low temperatures. In order to further evaluate these conclusions, small-signal ac relaxation data for a CaTiO3:30% Al3+ ceramic material are analyzed in detail and the results compared to those published by Nowick and associates for the same material. It is found that a plausible conducting-system dispersion model based on the effective-medium approximation for hopping charges yields results globally similar to, but somewhat different in detail from, those of Nowick et al. But a response model which includes both such conducting-system response and dielectric-system dispersion well fits the data over a wide temperature range. To do so, it requires the presence of a non-zero high-frequency-limiting resistivity probably arising from localized charge motion. No constant-loss individual dispersions appear in the model, but it nevertheless yields approximately constant loss over a limited frequency range at low temperatures. It suggests that asymptotic behavior is associated with the nearly temperature-independent dielectric-dispersion contribution to the response at low temperatures, and it does not verify the Nowick conclusion that the slope of the ac conductivity approaches a constant value near 0.6 at high temperatures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A streptomycete bacterium was isolated from a field soil sample previously treated with the insecticide isofenphos and found to be capable of growing on several commercial carbamate and organophosphate insecticides. These included carbofuran, cloethocarb, trimethacarb, isofenphos, fonofos, ethoprop, and phorate but not terbufos. As shown by Chromatographic analyses, the bacterium reduced the levels of isofenphos by 65–75% in a four-week period. Although the exact mechanism of degradation is not known, apparently it occurs by either an incidental type of metabolism or an abiotic process. Taxonomic characterization of this bacterium indicated it most nearly resemblesStreptomyces pilosus. A single plasmid with a molecular weight of 9,700 base pairs was obtained from the organism. It is not yet known if the presence of plasmid DNA contributes to the ability of the organism to grow on the pesticides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 124 (1976), S. 364-368 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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