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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Essential fatty acids ; Seasonal ; Neutral and polar lipids ; Omega 3 and 6 ; Omega 6 ; Freshwater fish, Esox lucius
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids were measured in the ovary, liver, white muscle, and adipopancreatic tissue of northern pike. The role of environmental and physiological factors underlying these changes was evaluated. From late summer (August–September) to winter (January–March), the weight percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially 22:6n3) declined significantly in the neutral lipids of all somatic tissues examined. However, large quantities of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated in the recrude cing ovaries during fall and the weight percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ovary polar lipids also increased significantly. Additionally, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of somatic polar lipids increased significantly during fall due to increases in the total polar lipid content of the somatic tissues. This suggests that during fall n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid are diverted away from somatic neutral lipids and thereby conserved for use in ovary construction and for incorporation into tissue polar lipids. The percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in ovary neutral lipids also declined during fall and early winter, perhaps as an adaptation to conserve these fatty acids for storage in oocyte polar lipids and later incorporation into cellular membranes of the developing embryo. Reductions in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of somatic and ovarian neutral lipids during fall were compensated for specifically by increases in the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids rather than saturated fatty acids. This suggests that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in pike neutral lipid, is regulated physiologically, and hence may influence the physiological functioning of these lipids. During fall and early winter the percentage of saturated fatty acids declined significantly in the polar lipids of all tissues examined. This change was consistent with the known effects of cold acclimation on the fatty acid composition of cellular membranes. As the ovaries were recrudescing from September to January, liver polar lipids exhibited significant decreases in the percentage of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and increases in monounsaturated fatty acids, and acquired a fatty acid composition very similar to that of ovary polar lipids. Therefore, seasonal changes in the percentage of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in liver polar lipids probably reflect the liver's role in vitellogenesis rather than the effects of temperature on membrane fatty acid composition. At all times of year, the fatty acid compositions of white muscle and adipopancreatic tissue neutral lipids were very similar, which may indicate a close metabolic relationship between these lipid compartments.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Capture by angling was used to induce burst exercise in northern pike. By 3 h after exercise blood lactate had risen to levels of 15.2 mmol l−1 (Fig. 2), which greatly exceeded the maximum post-exercise levels (4.0 mmol l−1) previously reported for muskellunge, a close relative of pike. White muscle lactate level was high, 41.8 mmol kg−1, immediately after capture but declined to 23.2 mmol kg−1 by 6 h (Fig. 2). Blood glucose level more than doubled after exercise and remained elevated even after 96 h of recovery (Fig. 2). During the first 6 h after angling, pike disposed of 9.57 mmol (861 mg) of lactate per kg body weight. A whole body metabolic rate of 153 mg O2 kg−1 h−1 is sufficient to account for this rate of lactate removal through oxidation (Table 3). However, the metabolic rate of the highly oxidative organs and tissues (red muscle, gills, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) must be very high (〉1,000 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) to oxidize even 60% of the lactate that disappeared from pike after exercise (Fig. 5). Mortality of pike from angling stress was less than 3%.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 207 (1965), S. 1306-1307 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Groups of A strain mice with a transplantable mammary tumour (AMT3) and (757 strain mice with a transplantable epithelioma (EpQ) were used. Tumours were transplanted by the subcutaneous injection on the back of a standard dose of tumour suspension. After 9 days the mice were immunized with 0-2 ml. ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 205 (1965), S. 918-919 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] An inbred colour of A strain mice was used. An A strain mammary tumour AMT3 was transplanted by subcutaneous injection of a standard dose of tumour cells. Spleens were weighed from normal mice and from mice bearing tumours for different intervals and after injections of cell-free extracts of the ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 25 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The habitat selected by northern pike, Esox lucius, a solitary top aquatic predator, was evaluated using radio location and ultrasonic telemetry. These predators moved extensively throughout the lake and exhibited a distinct preference for shallow vegetated areas close to shore. Selection of habitat was significantly influenced by meteorological factors. On windy days pike chose habitats which were further from shore, but not necessarily deeper, than those chosen on calm days. On sunny days pike moved into habitats that were close to shore and relatively shallow. Habitat selection of pike was not significantly influenced by rain. Northern pike exhibited a much greater versatility in the range of habitats they utilized than was previously believed. We propose that such versatility is an important feature of the behaviour of top predators.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Urine flow increased with acute temperature increases and showed temperature acclimation. When measured at 20 °C the urine flow of 10 °C acclimated fish was 3.2 times greater than the urine flow of 30 °C acclimated fish. In fish acclimated to 24 °C renal reabsorption of Na and Cl was independent of temperature over an intermediate range of temperatures (14–24 °C) but near the lower lethal temperature (6.5 °C) renal Na and Cl reabsorption was inhibited. Water permeability of the renal tubules was not affected by acute temperature change between 6.5 and 24 °C. Urine osmolality and urine Na, K and Cl concentrations showed nearly perfect temperature compensation in fish acclimated to 10 °C and 30 °C. The rate of renal excretion of Na and Cl showed temperature acclimation in that Na and Cl ecxretion measured at 20 °C was 7 to 8 times greater in 10 °C acclimated fish than in 30 °C acclimated fish. The rate of excretion of Na and Cl measured at 30 °C in 30 °C acclimated fish was approximately 1.7 times the rate of excretion measured at 10 °C in 10 °C acclimated fish. The branchial uptake of Na, measured in tap water, of fish acclimated to 10, 20 and 30 °C in demineralized water increased with acute increases in temperature. When the three acclimation groups were compared at an intermediate temperature (20 °C), the 10 °C acclimated group showed the highest rate of net uptake, and the 30 °C group the lowest rate of uptake. This apparent temperature acclimation of Na uptake was correlated with differences in the plasma Na concentration of the three acclimation groups. Plasma Cl concentrations were also correlated with acclimation temperature in fish acclimated in demineralized water, but the rate of net Cl uptake was considerably less than that for Na. Sodium and Cl uptake in fish which had been acclimated in tap water was very variable and was not clearly affected by acute changes in temperature. Uptake of Na and Cl by fish held in tap water did not show temperature acclimation. The difference between uptake and excretion of fish acclimated in tap water was not significantly different from zero, indicating that the fish were in salt balance.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We tested the hypotheses that rates of decomposition in a desert should be higher following single large rain events of 25 mm than evenly spaced 6 mm events and that supplemental rainfall should result in higher populations of soil biota. There were no significant differences in mass losses of creosotebush, Larrea tridentata, leaf litter on plots receiving water supplementation and no added water. On some sampling dates, there were higher mass losses in the 6 mm·week-1 treatment. Weekly rainfall produced higher coefficients of variation in mass losses than the other rainfall regimes. A single event pulse compared with weekly pulses of rainfall during the normal “dry” period resulted in no differences in mass losses. Microarthropods and nematodes exhibited numerical responses to supplemental rainfall but the litter microflora did not. These studies provide direct experimental evidence that the conventional wisdom linking decomposition to rainfall in deserts is wrong. The studies also suggest that the effects of litter fauna on surface litter decomposition are minimal; therefore, future studies should focus on activites of the microflora.
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