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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Oligo-Miocene Torquay Group at Bird Rock in south-eastern Australia comprises a sequence of fine-grained skeletal carbonates and argillaceous and glauconitic sandstones, deposited in a cool-water, mid-shelf environment. The Bird Rock glaucony is autochthonous and consists predominantly of randomly interstratified glauconitic smectite, which constitutes bioclast infills and faecal pellet replacements. The results of Rb–Sr and oxygen isotopic analysis of samples taken from a single glauconitic horizon (the BW horizon) indicate that the glaucony developed through a series of simultaneous dissolution–crystallization reactions, which occurred during very early diagenesis in a closed or isochemical system, isolated from the ambient marine environment. The constituent ions of the glaucony were derived primarily from terrigenous clay minerals, but considerable potassium may have been sourced indirectly from sea water, through potassium enrichment of clay precursors. The pore fluids associated with glauconitization were marine derived, but progressively modified by the dissolution–crystallization of detrital clay minerals and autochthonous glaucony. Rb–Sr data for the BW horizon indicate that dating glauconies may be somewhat problematic, as co-genetic glauconitic minerals can show a range of initial strontium compositions, which reflect the incorporation of strontium derived from mineralogical precursors and/or contemporaneous sea water. Rb–Sr isochrons indicate that the glaucony of the BW horizon formed at 23 ± 3 Ma. This age is in good agreement with both the established biostratigraphy and a 87Sr/86Sr age for the horizon (23 ± 1 Ma), but could only be determined using the independent age constraint and the estimate of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of contemporaneous sea water provided by analysis of associated biogenic carbonate.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Geochemical studies on the Hohonu Batholith, of the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand, have recognised two distinct but chemically related suites of mid-Cretaceous granitoids. The suites are characterised by restricted radiogenic isotopic compositions (Sr(i) = 0.7062 to 0.7085; ɛNd(i) = −4.4 to −6.1), and represent melting of a mafic lithosphere source followed by interaction with Ordovician metasediments. The two suites (Te Kinga Suite and Deutgam Suite) are distinguished by contrasting contents of Al2O3, Na2O, Sr, Ba, Eu and HREE, attributable to different residual asssemblages controlled by differing H2O contents during melting of a metabasaltic source. The relatively mafic, metaluminous, I-type Deutgam Suite represents magmas derived by dehydration melting in equilibrium with an amphibolitic (plagioclase + amphibole) residue. In contrast, the peraluminous, high silica compositions of the Te Kinga Suite were produced by melting at higher H2O contents, reducing the stability of plagioclase and resulting in a melt in equilibrium with a plagioclase-free eclogitic (garnet + amphibole) residue. Residual plagioclase during generation of the Deutgam Suite resulted in lower Al2O3, Na2O, Sr, Ba and Eu contents, whereas residual garnet during generation of the Te Kinga suite resulted in depleted HREE contents. The mid-Cretaceous granitoids of the Hohonu Batholith were generated during a period of rapid tectonic transition from crustal thickening during collision to crustal thinning and core complex formation during extension.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Jervois region of the Arunta Inlier, central Australia, contains para- and orthogneisses that underwent low-pressure amphibolite facies metamorphism (P = 200–300 MPa, T = 520–600 °C). Marble layers cut by metre-wide quartz + garnet ± epidote veins comprise calcite, quartz, epidote, clinopyroxene, grandite garnet, and locally wollastonite. The marbles also contain locally discordant decimetre-thick garnet and epidote skarn layers. The mineral assemblages imply that the rocks were infiltrated by water-rich fluids (XCO2 = 0.1–0.3) at ∼600 °C. The fluids were probably derived from the quartz-garnet vein systems that represent conduits for fluids exsolved from crystallizing pegmatites emplaced close to the metamorphic peak. At one locality, the marble has calcite (Cc) δ18O values of 9–18‰ and garnet (Gnt) δ18O values of 10–14‰. The δ18O(Gnt) values are only poorly correlated with δ18O(Cc), and the δ18O values of some garnet cores are higher than the rims. The isotopic disequilibrium indicates that garnet grew before the δ18O values of the rock were reset. The marbles contain  ≤15% garnet and, for water-rich fluids, garnet-forming reactions are predicted to propagate faster than O-isotopes are reset. The Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb ages of garnets imply that fluid flow occurred at 1750–1720 Ma. There are no significant age differences between garnet cores and rims, suggesting that fluid flow was relatively rapid. Texturally late epidote has δ18O values of 1.5–6.2‰ implying δ18O(H2O) values of 2–7‰. Waters with such low-δ18O values are probably at least partly meteoric in origin, and the epidote may be recording the late influx of meteoric water into a cooling hydrothermal system.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Microsampling of cm-scale feldspar crystals within an S-type granite from the Lachlan Fold Belt of southeastern Australia has revealed complex internal Sr and Nd isotopic variations. The observed isotopic zonations are in part interpreted as recording feldspar crystallisation in a dynamically mixing magma system, the isotopic composition of which was varying in response to the influx of more mafic and isotopically more mantle-like magmas, the latter stages of which are now represented in modified form by microgranular enclaves. Similar core to rim isotopic variations in feldspar megacrysts from a microgranular enclave and the adjacent host granite strongly suggest megacrysts in the enclave were transferred from the granitic magma during crystallisation. Feldspar rims have higher 87Sr/86Sri and lower ɛNd(i) than adjacent whole rock analyses, but match those of mineral separates from the surrounding enclave matrix. This suggests that the final stages of megacryst growth occurred in the presence of a component that had previously interacted with a high 87Sr/86Sr, low ɛNd(i) component such as metasedimentary wall rocks. Isotopic heterogeneities are also presererved within different mineral phases in the enclave matrix, suggesting that differing phases grew at differing stages of equilibration between the enclave magma and its host granitic magma. Our results reveal major isotopic heterogeneities on a single crystal and also inter-mineral scale in a pluton which shows well constrained evidence for magma mingling. These results indicate the suitability of feldspars as recorders of isotopic change in magmatic systems, even those which have cooled slowly in the plutonic environment and suggest that much heterogeneity in plutonic systems may be overlooked on a whole rock scale.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The 2.7-Gyr Kambalda- Per sever ance-Mt Keith sulphide deposits (containing Fe, Ni, Cu and platinum-group elements) are hosted by aluminium undepleted komatiites, exhibiting chon-dritic Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of 21 (ref. 5). MgO compositions of the initial komatiite lavas for both Kambalda and ...
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 64 (2017): 851-869, doi:10.1080/08120099.2017.1367326.
    Description: Volcanism associated with the Kerguelen Large Igneous Province is found scattered in southwestern Australia (the ca 136 to ca 130 Ma Bunbury Basalts, and ca 124 Ma Wallaby Plateau), India (ca 118 Ma Rajmahal Traps and Cona Basalts), and Tibet (the ca 132 Ma Comei Basalts), but apart from the ∼70 000 km2 Wallaby Plateau, these examples are spatially and volumetrically minor. Here, we report dredge, geochronological and geochemical results from the ∼90 000 km2 Naturaliste Plateau, located ∼170 to ∼500 km southwest of Australia. Dredged lavas and intrusive rocks range from mafic to felsic compositions, and prior geophysical analyses indicate these units comprise much of the plateau substrate. 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase ages from mafic units and U–Pb zircon ages from silicic rocks indicate magmatic emplacement from 130.6 ± 1.2 to 129.4 ± 1.3 Ma for mafic rocks and 131.8 ± 3.9 to 128.2 ± 2.3 Ma for silicic rocks (2σ). These Cretaceous Naturaliste magmas incorporated a significant component of continental crust, with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.78), high 207Pb/204 Pb ratios (15.5–15.6), low 143Nd/144Nd (0.511–0.512) and primitive-mantle normalised Th/Nb of 11.3 and La/Nb of 3.97. These geochemical results are consistent with the plateau being underlain by continental basement, as indicated by prior interpretations of seismic and gravity data, corroborated by dredging of Mesoproterozoic granites and gneisses on the southern plateau flank. The Cretaceous Naturaliste Plateau igneous rocks have signatures indicative of extraction from a depleted mantle, with trace-element and isotopic values that overlap with Kerguelen Plateau lavas reflect crustal contamination. Our chemical and geochronological results therefore show the Naturaliste Plateau contains evidence of an extensive igneous event representing some of the earliest voluminous Kerguelen hotspot magmas. Prior work reports that contemporaneous correlative volcanic sequences underlie the nearby Mentelle Basin, and the Enderby Basin and Princess Elizabeth Trough in the Antarctic. When combined, the igneous rocks in the Naturaliste, Mentelle, Wallaby, Enderby, Princess Elizabeth, Bunbury and Comei-Cona areas form a 136–124 Ma Large Igneous Province covering 〉244 000 km2.
    Description: Major National Research Facility [grant number Southern Surveyor Voyage SS09/2005] Frogtech Pty Ltd, Geoscience Australia, Australian Research Council [grant number DE150130, DP0666062]
    Keywords: Naturaliste Plateau ; Kerguelen hotspot ; Gondwanaland breakup ; Geochronology ; Geochemistry ; Tibet ; Wallaby Plateau
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-12-11
    Description: An assemblage of magnetite and apatite is common worldwide in different ore deposit types, including disparate members of the iron-oxide copper–gold (IOCG) clan. The Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits, a subtype of the IOCG family, are recognized as economic targets as well. A wide range of competing genetic models exists for magnetite–apatite deposits, including magmatic, magmatic-hydrothermal, hydrothermal(-metasomatic), and sedimentary(-exhalative). The sources and mechanisms of transport and deposition of Fe and P remain highly debatable. This study reports petrographic and geochemical features of the magnetite–apatite-rich vein assemblages in the dolerite dykes of the Gairdner Dyke Swarm (~0.82 Ga) that intruded the Roxby Downs Granite (~0.59 Ga), the host of the supergiant Olympic Dam IOCG deposit. These symmetrical, only few mm narrow veins are prevalent in such dykes and comprise besides usually colloform magnetite and prismatic apatite also further minerals (e.g., calcite, quartz). The genetic relationships between the veins and host dolerite are implied based on alteration in the immediate vicinity (~4 mm) of the veins. In particular, Ti-magnetite–ilmenite is partially to completely transformed to titanite and magmatic apatite disappears. We conclude that the mafic dykes were a local source of Fe and P re-concentrated in the magnetite–apatite veins. Uranium-Pb ages for vein apatite and titanite associated with the vein in this case study suggest that alteration of the dolerite and healing of the fractures occurred shortly after dyke emplacement. We propose that in this particular case the origin of the magnetite–apatite assemblage is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration of the host mafic magmatic rocks. ©2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1998-02-24
    Description: Geochemical studies on the Hohonu Batholith, of the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand, have recognised two distinct but chemically related suites of mid-Cretaceous granitoids. The suites are characterised by restricted radiogenic isotopic compositions (Sr_(i) = 0.7062 to 0.7085; ɛNd_(i) = −4.4 to −6.1), and represent melting of a mafic lithosphere source followed by interaction with Ordovician metasediments. The two suites (Te Kinga Suite and Deutgam Suite) are distinguished by contrasting contents of Al_2O_3, Na_2O, Sr, Ba, Eu and HREE, attributable to different residual asssemblages controlled by differing H_2O contents during melting of a metabasaltic source. The relatively mafic, metaluminous, I-type Deutgam Suite represents magmas derived by dehydration melting in equilibrium with an amphibolitic (plagioclase + amphibole) residue. In contrast, the peraluminous, high silica compositions of the Te Kinga Suite were produced by melting at higher H_2O contents, reducing the stability of plagioclase and resulting in a melt in equilibrium with a plagioclase-free eclogitic (garnet + amphibole) residue. Residual plagioclase during generation of the Deutgam Suite resulted in lower Al_2O_3, Na_2O, Sr, Ba and Eu contents, whereas residual garnet during generation of the Te Kinga suite resulted in depleted HREE contents. The mid-Cretaceous granitoids of the Hohonu Batholith were generated during a period of rapid tectonic transition from crustal thickening during collision to crustal thinning and core complex formation during extension. ©1998 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial εNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820–1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs Orogeny. Surface exposure and weathering of fluorapatite produced acidic fluids and intense, near-surface kaolinitised zones that include high-grade, supergene-enriched cheralite-rich ores. ©2016 Crown Copyright
    Print ISSN: 0026-4598
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1866
    Topics: Geosciences
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