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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-04-05
    Description: The timing of the first human migration into the Americas and its relation to the appearance of the Clovis technological complex in North America at about 11,000 to 10,800 radiocarbon years before the present (14C years B.P.) remains contentious. We establish that humans were present at Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves, in south-central Oregon, by 12,300 14C years B.P., through the recovery of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from coprolites, directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry. The mtDNA corresponds to Native American founding haplogroups A2 and B2. The dates of the coprolites are 〉1000 14C years earlier than currently accepted dates for the Clovis complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Jenkins, Dennis L -- Gotherstrom, Anders -- Naveran, Nuria -- Sanchez, Juan J -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Thomsen, Philip Francis -- Binladen, Jonas -- Higham, Thomas F G -- Yohe, Robert M 2nd -- Parr, Robert -- Cummings, Linda Scott -- Willerslev, Eske -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 May 9;320(5877):786-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1154116. Epub 2008 Apr 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Ancient Genetics, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18388261" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Canidae/genetics ; *DNA, Mitochondrial ; *Emigration and Immigration ; *Feces ; *Fossils ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; North America ; Oregon ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sciuridae/genetics ; Sigmodontinae/genetics ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-05-31
    Description: The Paleo-Eskimo Saqqaq and Independence I cultures, documented from archaeological remains in Northern Canada and Greenland, represent the earliest human expansion into the New World's northern extremes. However, their origin and genetic relationship to later cultures are unknown. We sequenced a mitochondrial genome from a Paleo-Eskimo human by using 3400-to 4500-year-old frozen hair excavated from an early Greenlandic Saqqaq settlement. The sample is distinct from modern Native Americans and Neo-Eskimos, falling within haplogroup D2a1, a group previously observed among modern Aleuts and Siberian Sireniki Yuit. This result suggests that the earliest migrants into the New World's northern extremes derived from populations in the Bering Sea area and were not directly related to Native Americans or the later Neo-Eskimos that replaced them.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Gronnow, Bjarne -- Andersen, Pernille K -- Metspalu, Ene -- Reidla, Maere -- Tamm, Erika -- Axelsson, Erik -- Gotherstrom, Anders -- Campos, Paula F -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Metspalu, Mait -- Higham, Thomas F G -- Schwenninger, Jean-Luc -- Nathan, Roger -- De Hoog, Cees-Jan -- Koch, Anders -- Moller, Lone Nukaaraq -- Andreasen, Claus -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Villems, Richard -- Bendixen, Christian -- Willerslev, Eske -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Jun 27;320(5884):1787-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1159750. Epub 2008 May 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Ancient Genetics, Department of Biology, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18511654" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Emigration and Immigration ; Female ; Genetics, Population ; *Genome, Mitochondrial ; Greenland ; Hair/chemistry ; Haplotypes ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Indians, North American/genetics ; Inuits/classification/*genetics/history ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-02-12
    Description: We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951495/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951495/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Morten -- Li, Yingrui -- Lindgreen, Stinus -- Pedersen, Jakob Skou -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Moltke, Ida -- Metspalu, Mait -- Metspalu, Ene -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Gupta, Ramneek -- Bertalan, Marcelo -- Nielsen, Kasper -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Wang, Yong -- Raghavan, Maanasa -- Campos, Paula F -- Kamp, Hanne Munkholm -- Wilson, Andrew S -- Gledhill, Andrew -- Tridico, Silvana -- Bunce, Michael -- Lorenzen, Eline D -- Binladen, Jonas -- Guo, Xiaosen -- Zhao, Jing -- Zhang, Xiuqing -- Zhang, Hao -- Li, Zhuo -- Chen, Minfeng -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Bak, Mads -- Tommerup, Niels -- Bendixen, Christian -- Pierre, Tracey L -- Gronnow, Bjarne -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Andreasen, Claus -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Osipova, Ludmila P -- Higham, Thomas F G -- Ramsey, Christopher Bronk -- Hansen, Thomas V O -- Nielsen, Finn C -- Crawford, Michael H -- Brunak, Soren -- Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas -- Villems, Richard -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Krogh, Anders -- Wang, Jun -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229-05/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62. doi: 10.1038/nature08835.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20148029" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cryopreservation ; Emigration and Immigration/history ; *Extinction, Biological ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Greenland ; Hair ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Inuits/*genetics ; Male ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Siberia/ethnology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-04
    Description: Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzen, Eline D -- Nogues-Bravo, David -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Weinstock, Jaco -- Binladen, Jonas -- Marske, Katharine A -- Ugan, Andrew -- Borregaard, Michael K -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Ho, Simon Y W -- Goebel, Ted -- Graf, Kelly E -- Byers, David -- Stenderup, Jesper T -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Campos, Paula F -- Leonard, Jennifer A -- Koepfli, Klaus-Peter -- Froese, Duane -- Zazula, Grant -- Stafford, Thomas W Jr -- Aaris-Sorensen, Kim -- Batra, Persaram -- Haywood, Alan M -- Singarayer, Joy S -- Valdes, Paul J -- Boeskorov, Gennady -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergey P -- Haile, James -- Jenkins, Dennis L -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kuznetsova, Tatyana -- Lai, Xulong -- Martin, Larry D -- McDonald, H Gregory -- Mol, Dick -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Munch, Kasper -- Stephan, Elisabeth -- Sablin, Mikhail -- Sommer, Robert S -- Sipko, Taras -- Scott, Eric -- Suchard, Marc A -- Tikhonov, Alexei -- Willerslev, Rane -- Wayne, Robert K -- Cooper, Alan -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Sher, Andrei -- Shapiro, Beth -- Rahbek, Carsten -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7373):359-64. doi: 10.1038/nature10574.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048313" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Biota ; Bison ; Climate Change/*history ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Europe ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Geography ; History, Ancient ; Horses ; Human Activities/*history ; Humans ; Mammals/genetics/*physiology ; Mammoths ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Population Dynamics ; Reindeer ; Siberia ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2003-04-19
    Description: Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and megafaunal sequences including mammoth, bison, and horse. The genetic data record a number of dramatic changes in the taxonomic diversity and composition of Beringian vegetation and fauna. Temperate cave sediments in New Zealand also yielded DNA sequences of extinct biota, including two species of ratite moa, and 29 plant taxa characteristic of the prehuman environment. Therefore, many sedimentary deposits may contain unique, and widespread, genetic records of paleoenvironments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willerslev, Eske -- Hansen, Anders J -- Binladen, Jonas -- Brand, Tina B -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Shapiro, Beth -- Bunce, Michael -- Wiuf, Carsten -- Gilichinsky, David A -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):791-5. Epub 2003 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Biology, Zoological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, Denmark DK-2100 O.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12702808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/classification/genetics ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Bryopsida/classification/genetics ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Chloroplast/analysis ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; DNA, Plant/*analysis/genetics ; Ecosystem ; Fossils ; *Geologic Sediments ; Gymnosperms/classification/genetics ; History, Ancient ; Mammals/classification/genetics ; New Zealand ; Phylogeny ; *Plants/classification ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Siberia ; *Soil ; *Vertebrates/classification/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2003-11-15
    Description: Maize was domesticated from teosinte, a wild grass, by approximately 6300 years ago in Mexico. After initial domestication, early farmers continued to select for advantageous morphological and biochemical traits in this important crop. However, the timing and sequence of character selection are, thus far, known only for morphological features discernible in corn cobs. We have analyzed three genes involved in the control of plant architecture, storage protein synthesis, and starch production from archaeological maize samples from Mexico and the southwestern United States. The results reveal that the alleles typical of contemporary maize were present in Mexican maize by 4400 years ago. However, as recently as 2000 years ago, allelic selection at one of the genes may not yet have been complete.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaenicke-Despres, Viviane -- Buckler, Ed S -- Smith, Bruce D -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Cooper, Alan -- Doebley, John -- Paabo, Svante -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 Nov 14;302(5648):1206-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14615538" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alleles ; Archaeology ; *Biological Evolution ; Crops, Agricultural/*genetics ; DNA, Plant/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Gene Frequency ; Genes, Plant ; Genetic Variation ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mexico ; Plant Proteins/genetics/physiology ; *Selection, Genetic ; Southwestern United States ; Time Factors ; Transcription Factors/genetics/physiology ; Zea mays/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-01-05
    Description: We used authentication tests developed for ancient DNA to evaluate claims by Asara et al. (Reports, 13 April 2007, p. 280) of collagen peptide sequences recovered from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex fossils. Although the mastodon samples pass these tests, absence of amino acid composition data, lack of evidence for peptide deamidation, and association of alpha1(I) collagen sequences with amphibians rather than birds suggest that T. rex does not.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694913/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694913/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Buckley, Mike -- Walker, Angela -- Ho, Simon Y W -- Yang, Yue -- Smith, Colin -- Ashton, Peter -- Oates, Jane Thomas -- Cappellini, Enrico -- Koon, Hannah -- Penkman, Kirsty -- Elsworth, Ben -- Ashford, Dave -- Solazzo, Caroline -- Andrews, Phillip -- Strahler, John -- Shapiro, Beth -- Ostrom, Peggy -- Gandhi, Hasand -- Miller, Webb -- Raney, Brian -- Zylber, Maria Ines -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Prigodich, Richard V -- Ryan, Michael -- Rijsdijk, Kenneth F -- Janoo, Anwar -- Collins, Matthew J -- 076905/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Jan 4;319(5859):33; author reply 33. doi: 10.1126/science.1147046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉BioArch, Departments of Biology, Archaeology, Chemistry and Technology Facility, University of York, Post Office Box 373, York YO10 5YW, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174420" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Bone and Bones/*chemistry ; Collagen/*chemistry ; *Dinosaurs ; *Elephants ; *Fossils ; Mass Spectrometry ; Phylogeny
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-09-24
    Description: We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991479/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991479/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Morten -- Guo, Xiaosen -- Wang, Yong -- Lohmueller, Kirk E -- Rasmussen, Simon -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Skotte, Line -- Lindgreen, Stinus -- Metspalu, Mait -- Jombart, Thibaut -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Zhai, Weiwei -- Eriksson, Anders -- Manica, Andrea -- Orlando, Ludovic -- De La Vega, Francisco M -- Tridico, Silvana -- Metspalu, Ene -- Nielsen, Kasper -- Avila-Arcos, Maria C -- Moreno-Mayar, J Victor -- Muller, Craig -- Dortch, Joe -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Lund, Ole -- Wesolowska, Agata -- Karmin, Monika -- Weinert, Lucy A -- Wang, Bo -- Li, Jun -- Tai, Shuaishuai -- Xiao, Fei -- Hanihara, Tsunehiko -- van Driem, George -- Jha, Aashish R -- Ricaut, Francois-Xavier -- de Knijff, Peter -- Migliano, Andrea B -- Gallego Romero, Irene -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Lambert, David M -- Brunak, Soren -- Forster, Peter -- Brinkmann, Bernd -- Nehlich, Olaf -- Bunce, Michael -- Richards, Michael -- Gupta, Ramneek -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Krogh, Anders -- Foley, Robert A -- Lahr, Marta M -- Balloux, Francois -- Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas -- Villems, Richard -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Wang, Jun -- Willerslev, Eske -- BB/H005854/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H008802/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 7;334(6052):94-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1211177. Epub 2011 Sep 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21940856" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Continental Ancestry Group ; Animals ; Asia ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Computer Simulation ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Emigration and Immigration ; Ethnic Groups/genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Far East ; Gene Flow ; Gene Frequency ; Genetics, Population/methods ; *Genome, Human ; Genome, Mitochondrial ; Haplotypes ; Hominidae/genetics ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Oceanic Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Western Australia
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-04-28
    Description: The farming way of life originated in the Near East some 11,000 years ago and had reached most of the European continent 5000 years later. However, the impact of the agricultural revolution on demography and patterns of genomic variation in Europe remains unknown. We obtained 249 million base pairs of genomic DNA from ~5000-year-old remains of three hunter-gatherers and one farmer excavated in Scandinavia and find that the farmer is genetically most similar to extant southern Europeans, contrasting sharply to the hunter-gatherers, whose distinct genetic signature is most similar to that of extant northern Europeans. Our results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Skoglund, Pontus -- Malmstrom, Helena -- Raghavan, Maanasa -- Stora, Jan -- Hall, Per -- Willerslev, Eske -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Gotherstrom, Anders -- Jakobsson, Mattias -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Apr 27;336(6080):466-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1216304.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. pontus.skoglund@ebc.uu.se〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22539720" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*history ; Burial ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Demography ; Emigration and Immigration/history ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics/history ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Haplotypes ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Population Dynamics ; Principal Component Analysis ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sweden
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2008-10-04
    Description: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time, are lacking, however; ZR59 is the only one sampled before 1976. Here we report the amplification and characterization of viral sequences from a Bouin's-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsy specimen obtained in 1960 from an adult female in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (now Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)), and we use them to conduct the first comparative evolutionary genetic study of early pre-AIDS epidemic HIV-1 group M viruses. Phylogenetic analyses position this viral sequence (DRC60) closest to the ancestral node of subtype A (excluding A2). Relaxed molecular clock analyses incorporating DRC60 and ZR59 date the most recent common ancestor of the M group to near the beginning of the twentieth century. The sizeable genetic distance between DRC60 and ZR59 directly demonstrates that diversification of HIV-1 in west-central Africa occurred long before the recognized AIDS pandemic. The recovery of viral gene sequences from decades-old paraffin-embedded tissues opens the door to a detailed palaeovirological investigation of the evolutionary history of HIV-1 that is not accessible by other methods.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682493/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682493/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Worobey, Michael -- Gemmel, Marlea -- Teuwen, Dirk E -- Haselkorn, Tamara -- Kunstman, Kevin -- Bunce, Michael -- Muyembe, Jean-Jacques -- Kabongo, Jean-Marie M -- Kalengayi, Raphael M -- Van Marck, Eric -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Wolinsky, Steven M -- R21 AI065371/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07390.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. worobey@email.arizona.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Canada ; Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; HIV Infections/*epidemiology/pathology/*virology ; HIV-1/classification/*genetics/*isolation & purification ; History, 20th Century ; Humans ; Male ; Microtomy ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paraffin Embedding ; Phylogeny ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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