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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-20
    Description: The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-12-31
    Description: The domestication of the horse ∼5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ancient horse genomes from Taymyr, Russia (at 7.4- and...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: DNA-based taxonomic and functional profiling is widely used for the characterization of organismal communities across a rapidly increasing array of research areas that include the role of microbiomes in health and disease, biomonitoring, and estimation of both microbial and metazoan species richness. Two principal approaches are currently used to assign taxonomy to DNA sequences: DNA metabarcoding and metagenomics. When initially developed, each of these approaches mandated their own particular methods for data analysis; however, with the development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques they have begun to share many aspects in data set generation and processing. In this review we aim to define the current characteristics, goals and boundaries of each field, and describe the different software used for their analysis. We argue that an appreciation of the potential and limitations of each method can help underscore the improvements required by each field so as to better exploit the richness of current HTS-based data sets.
    Print ISSN: 1467-5463
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-4054
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-04
    Description: Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070744/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lorenzen, Eline D -- Nogues-Bravo, David -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Weinstock, Jaco -- Binladen, Jonas -- Marske, Katharine A -- Ugan, Andrew -- Borregaard, Michael K -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Ho, Simon Y W -- Goebel, Ted -- Graf, Kelly E -- Byers, David -- Stenderup, Jesper T -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Campos, Paula F -- Leonard, Jennifer A -- Koepfli, Klaus-Peter -- Froese, Duane -- Zazula, Grant -- Stafford, Thomas W Jr -- Aaris-Sorensen, Kim -- Batra, Persaram -- Haywood, Alan M -- Singarayer, Joy S -- Valdes, Paul J -- Boeskorov, Gennady -- Burns, James A -- Davydov, Sergey P -- Haile, James -- Jenkins, Dennis L -- Kosintsev, Pavel -- Kuznetsova, Tatyana -- Lai, Xulong -- Martin, Larry D -- McDonald, H Gregory -- Mol, Dick -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Munch, Kasper -- Stephan, Elisabeth -- Sablin, Mikhail -- Sommer, Robert S -- Sipko, Taras -- Scott, Eric -- Suchard, Marc A -- Tikhonov, Alexei -- Willerslev, Rane -- Wayne, Robert K -- Cooper, Alan -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Sher, Andrei -- Shapiro, Beth -- Rahbek, Carsten -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 2;479(7373):359-64. doi: 10.1038/nature10574.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048313" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bayes Theorem ; *Biota ; Bison ; Climate Change/*history ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Europe ; *Extinction, Biological ; Fossils ; Genetic Variation ; Geography ; History, Ancient ; Horses ; Human Activities/*history ; Humans ; Mammals/genetics/*physiology ; Mammoths ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Population Dynamics ; Reindeer ; Siberia ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-06-28
    Description: The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Orlando, Ludovic -- Ginolhac, Aurelien -- Zhang, Guojie -- Froese, Duane -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Stiller, Mathias -- Schubert, Mikkel -- Cappellini, Enrico -- Petersen, Bent -- Moltke, Ida -- Johnson, Philip L F -- Fumagalli, Matteo -- Vilstrup, Julia T -- Raghavan, Maanasa -- Korneliussen, Thorfinn -- Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo -- Vogt, Josef -- Szklarczyk, Damian -- Kelstrup, Christian D -- Vinther, Jakob -- Dolocan, Andrei -- Stenderup, Jesper -- Velazquez, Amhed M V -- Cahill, James -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Wang, Xiaoli -- Min, Jiumeng -- Zazula, Grant D -- Seguin-Orlando, Andaine -- Mortensen, Cecilie -- Magnussen, Kim -- Thompson, John F -- Weinstock, Jacobo -- Gregersen, Kristian -- Roed, Knut H -- Eisenmann, Vera -- Rubin, Carl J -- Miller, Donald C -- Antczak, Douglas F -- Bertelsen, Mads F -- Brunak, Soren -- Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S -- Ryder, Oliver -- Andersson, Leif -- Mundy, John -- Krogh, Anders -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Kjaer, Kurt -- Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas -- Jensen, Lars Juhl -- Olsen, Jesper V -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Shapiro, Beth -- Wang, Jun -- Willerslev, Eske -- RC2 HG005598/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 4;499(7456):74-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12323. Epub 2013 Jun 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Lorlando@snm.ku.dk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23803765" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; DNA/analysis/genetics ; Endangered Species ; Equidae/classification/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fossils ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; History, Ancient ; Horses/classification/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Proteins/analysis/chemistry/genetics ; Yukon Territory
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Guojie -- Rahbek, Carsten -- Graves, Gary R -- Lei, Fumin -- Jarvis, Erich D -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):34. doi: 10.1038/522034d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26040883" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Birds/*genetics/virology ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics/*trends ; Zoonoses/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-10-04
    Description: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences that pre-date the recognition of AIDS are critical to defining the time of origin and the timescale of virus evolution. A viral sequence from 1959 (ZR59) is the oldest known HIV-1 infection. Other historically documented sequences, important calibration points to convert evolutionary distance into time, are lacking, however; ZR59 is the only one sampled before 1976. Here we report the amplification and characterization of viral sequences from a Bouin's-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph node biopsy specimen obtained in 1960 from an adult female in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (now Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)), and we use them to conduct the first comparative evolutionary genetic study of early pre-AIDS epidemic HIV-1 group M viruses. Phylogenetic analyses position this viral sequence (DRC60) closest to the ancestral node of subtype A (excluding A2). Relaxed molecular clock analyses incorporating DRC60 and ZR59 date the most recent common ancestor of the M group to near the beginning of the twentieth century. The sizeable genetic distance between DRC60 and ZR59 directly demonstrates that diversification of HIV-1 in west-central Africa occurred long before the recognized AIDS pandemic. The recovery of viral gene sequences from decades-old paraffin-embedded tissues opens the door to a detailed palaeovirological investigation of the evolutionary history of HIV-1 that is not accessible by other methods.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682493/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3682493/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Worobey, Michael -- Gemmel, Marlea -- Teuwen, Dirk E -- Haselkorn, Tamara -- Kunstman, Kevin -- Bunce, Michael -- Muyembe, Jean-Jacques -- Kabongo, Jean-Marie M -- Kalengayi, Raphael M -- Van Marck, Eric -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Wolinsky, Steven M -- R21 AI065371/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07390.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. worobey@email.arizona.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Canada ; Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; HIV Infections/*epidemiology/pathology/*virology ; HIV-1/classification/*genetics/*isolation & purification ; History, 20th Century ; Humans ; Male ; Microtomy ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paraffin Embedding ; Phylogeny ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2010-02-12
    Description: We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951495/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951495/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Morten -- Li, Yingrui -- Lindgreen, Stinus -- Pedersen, Jakob Skou -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Moltke, Ida -- Metspalu, Mait -- Metspalu, Ene -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Gupta, Ramneek -- Bertalan, Marcelo -- Nielsen, Kasper -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Wang, Yong -- Raghavan, Maanasa -- Campos, Paula F -- Kamp, Hanne Munkholm -- Wilson, Andrew S -- Gledhill, Andrew -- Tridico, Silvana -- Bunce, Michael -- Lorenzen, Eline D -- Binladen, Jonas -- Guo, Xiaosen -- Zhao, Jing -- Zhang, Xiuqing -- Zhang, Hao -- Li, Zhuo -- Chen, Minfeng -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Bak, Mads -- Tommerup, Niels -- Bendixen, Christian -- Pierre, Tracey L -- Gronnow, Bjarne -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Andreasen, Claus -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Osipova, Ludmila P -- Higham, Thomas F G -- Ramsey, Christopher Bronk -- Hansen, Thomas V O -- Nielsen, Finn C -- Crawford, Michael H -- Brunak, Soren -- Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas -- Villems, Richard -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Krogh, Anders -- Wang, Jun -- Willerslev, Eske -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229-05/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62. doi: 10.1038/nature08835.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20148029" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cryopreservation ; Emigration and Immigration/history ; *Extinction, Biological ; Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Greenland ; Hair ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Inuits/*genetics ; Male ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Siberia/ethnology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-07
    Description: Although it is generally agreed that the Arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of Arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we also explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many of which became extinct around 10 kyr bp (before present). For much of the period investigated, Arctic vegetation consisted of dry steppe-tundra dominated by forbs (non-graminoid herbaceous vascular plants). During the Last Glacial Maximum (25-15 kyr bp), diversity declined markedly, although forbs remained dominant. Much changed after 10 kyr bp, with the appearance of moist tundra dominated by woody plants and graminoids. Our analyses indicate that both graminoids and forbs would have featured in megafaunal diets. As such, our findings question the predominance of a Late Quaternary graminoid-dominated Arctic mammoth steppe.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willerslev, Eske -- Davison, John -- Moora, Mari -- Zobel, Martin -- Coissac, Eric -- Edwards, Mary E -- Lorenzen, Eline D -- Vestergard, Mette -- Gussarova, Galina -- Haile, James -- Craine, Joseph -- Gielly, Ludovic -- Boessenkool, Sanne -- Epp, Laura S -- Pearman, Peter B -- Cheddadi, Rachid -- Murray, David -- Brathen, Kari Anne -- Yoccoz, Nigel -- Binney, Heather -- Cruaud, Corinne -- Wincker, Patrick -- Goslar, Tomasz -- Alsos, Inger Greve -- Bellemain, Eva -- Brysting, Anne Krag -- Elven, Reidar -- Sonstebo, Jorn Henrik -- Murton, Julian -- Sher, Andrei -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Ronn, Regin -- Mourier, Tobias -- Cooper, Alan -- Austin, Jeremy -- Moller, Per -- Froese, Duane -- Zazula, Grant -- Pompanon, Francois -- Rioux, Delphine -- Niderkorn, Vincent -- Tikhonov, Alexei -- Savvinov, Grigoriy -- Roberts, Richard G -- MacPhee, Ross D E -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Kjaer, Kurt H -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Brochmann, Christian -- Taberlet, Pierre -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 6;506(7486):47-51. doi: 10.1038/nature12921.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2]. ; 1] Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Street, 51005 Tartu, Estonia [2]. ; 1] Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine (LECA) CNRS UMR 5553, University Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France [2]. ; 1] Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK [2]. ; 1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, 1005 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, 94720 California, USA [3]. ; 1] National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway [2] Department of Botany, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia [3]. ; 1] Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark [2] Ancient DNA Laboratory, Veterinary and Life Sciences School, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Perth, 6150 Western Australia, Australia [3]. ; Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506-4901 Kansas, USA. ; Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine (LECA) CNRS UMR 5553, University Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. ; 1] National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway [2] Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway (S.B.); Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A 43, 14473 Potsdam, Germany (L.S.E.); SpyGen, Savoie Technolac, 17 allee du lac Saint Andre, BP 274, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex, France (E.B.). ; Landscape Dynamics Unit, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zurcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland. ; Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, UMR 5554 Universite Montpellier 2, Bat.22, CC061, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. ; University of Alaska Museum of the North, Fairbanks, 99775-6960 Alaska, USA. ; Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway. ; Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK. ; Genoscope, Institut de Genomique du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), 91000 Evry, France. ; 1] Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan, Poland [2] Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, Poznan Science and Technology Park, Rubiez 46, 61-612 Poznan, Poland. ; Tromso University Museum, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway. ; Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway. ; National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway. ; Permafrost Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK. ; 1] Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, 33 Leninsky Prospect, 119071 Moscow, Russia [2]. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark. ; Department of Biology, Terrestrial Ecology, Universitetsparken 15, DK- 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. ; Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 South Australia, Australia. ; Department of Geology/Quaternary Sciences, Lund University Solvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. ; Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, T6G 2E3 Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ; Government of Yukon, Department of Tourism and Culture, Yukon Palaeontology Program, PO Box 2703 L2A, Y1A 2C6 Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada. ; INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genes-Champanelle, France. ; Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab. 1, 199034 Saint-Petersburg, Russia. ; Institute of Applied Ecology of the North of North-Eastern Federal University, Belinskogo Street 58, 677000 Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. ; Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, 2522 New South Wales, Australia. ; Division of Vertebrate Zoology/Mammalogy, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 10024 New York, USA. ; 1] National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24499916" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arctic Regions ; *Biodiversity ; Bison/physiology ; Cold Climate ; *Diet ; Freezing ; *Herbivory ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Horses/physiology ; Mammoths/physiology ; *Nematoda/classification/genetics/isolation & purification ; *Plants/classification/genetics ; Poaceae/genetics/growth & development ; Soil ; Time Factors ; Yukon Territory
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-09-19
    Description: Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katzourakis, Aris -- Gifford, Robert J -- Tristem, Michael -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Pybus, Oliver G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1512. doi: 10.1126/science.1174149.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Zoology Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. aris.katzourakis@zoo.ox.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19762636" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Biological Evolution ; Endogenous Retroviruses/classification/*genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome ; Genome, Viral ; Immunity, Innate ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Retroviridae Infections/veterinary/virology ; Sloths/classification/*genetics/immunology/*virology ; Spumavirus/classification/*genetics ; Time
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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