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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-05
    Description: Cancer is a disease of ageing. Clinically, aged cancer patients tend to have a poorer prognosis than young. This may be due to accumulated cellular damage, decreases in adaptive immunity, and chronic inflammation. However, the effects of the aged microenvironment on tumour progression have been largely unexplored. Since dermal fibroblasts can have profound impacts on melanoma progression, we examined whether age-related changes in dermal fibroblasts could drive melanoma metastasis and response to targeted therapy. Here we find that aged fibroblasts secrete a Wnt antagonist, sFRP2, which activates a multi-step signalling cascade in melanoma cells that results in a decrease in beta-catenin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and ultimately the loss of a key redox effector, APE1. Loss of APE1 attenuates the response of melanoma cells to DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species, rendering the cells more resistant to targeted therapy (vemurafenib). Age-related increases in sFRP2 also augment both angiogenesis and metastasis of melanoma cells. These data provide an integrated view of how fibroblasts in the aged microenvironment contribute to tumour progression, offering new possibilities for the design of therapy for the elderly.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaur, Amanpreet -- Webster, Marie R -- Marchbank, Katie -- Behera, Reeti -- Ndoye, Abibatou -- Kugel, Curtis H 3rd -- Dang, Vanessa M -- Appleton, Jessica -- O'Connell, Michael P -- Cheng, Phil -- Valiga, Alexander A -- Morissette, Rachel -- McDonnell, Nazli B -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Kossenkov, Andrew V -- Meeth, Katrina -- Tang, Hsin-Yao -- Yin, Xiangfan -- Wood, William H 3rd -- Lehrmann, Elin -- Becker, Kevin G -- Flaherty, Keith T -- Frederick, Dennie T -- Wargo, Jennifer A -- Cooper, Zachary A -- Tetzlaff, Michael T -- Hudgens, Courtney -- Aird, Katherine M -- Zhang, Rugang -- Xu, Xiaowei -- Liu, Qin -- Bartlett, Edmund -- Karakousis, Giorgos -- Eroglu, Zeynep -- Lo, Roger S -- Chan, Matthew -- Menzies, Alexander M -- Long, Georgina V -- Johnson, Douglas B -- Sosman, Jeffrey -- Schilling, Bastian -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Speicher, David W -- Bosenberg, Marcus -- Ribas, Antoni -- Weeraratna, Ashani T -- P01 CA 114046-06/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA114046/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA010815/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA093372/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA174746/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA174746-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009171/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA9171-36/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):250-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17392. Epub 2016 Apr 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University of Zurich, Zurich CH-8006, Switzerland. ; The National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Department of Dermatology and Pathology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Developmental Therapeutics, Boston 02114, Massachusetts, USA. ; Department of Surgical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia. ; Melanoma Institute Australia and The University of Sydney, Sydney 2000, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, West German Cancer Center, University Duesburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. ; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 45127, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aging/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; DNA Damage ; DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase/metabolism ; Disease Progression ; *Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Fibroblasts/secretion ; Humans ; Indoles/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Male ; Melanoma/blood supply/*drug therapy/genetics/*pathology ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism/secretion ; Mice ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Middle Aged ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; *Neoplasm Metastasis ; Neovascularization, Pathologic ; Oxidative Stress ; Phenotype ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Sulfonamides/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; *Tumor Microenvironment ; Wnt Signaling Pathway ; Wnt1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors ; beta Catenin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-27
    Description: Defining homologous genes is important in many evolutionary studies but raises obvious issues. Some of these issues are conceptual and stem from our assumptions of how a gene evolves, others are practical, and depend on the algorithmic decisions implemented in existing software. Therefore, to make progress in the study of homology, both ontological and epistemological questions must be considered. In particular, defining homologous genes cannot be solely addressed under the classic assumptions of strong tree thinking, according to which genes evolve in a strictly tree-like fashion of vertical descent and divergence and the problems of homology detection are primarily methodological. Gene homology could also be considered under a different perspective where genes evolve as "public goods," subjected to various introgressive processes. In this latter case, defining homologous genes becomes a matter of designing models suited to the actual complexity of the data and how such complexity arises, rather than trying to fit genetic data to some a priori tree-like evolutionary model, a practice that inevitably results in the loss of much information. Here we show how important aspects of the problems raised by homology detection methods can be overcome when even more fundamental roots of these problems are addressed by analyzing public goods thinking evolutionary processes through which genes have frequently originated. This kind of thinking acknowledges distinct types of homologs, characterized by distinct patterns, in phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic unrooted or multirooted networks. In addition, we define "family resemblances" to include genes that are related through intermediate relatives, thereby placing notions of homology in the broader context of evolutionary relationships. We conclude by presenting some payoffs of adopting such a pluralistic account of homology and family relationship, which expands the scope of evolutionary analyses beyond the traditional, yet relatively narrow focus allowed by a strong tree-thinking view on gene evolution.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-01-28
    Description: RNA editing by deamination of specific adenosine bases to inosines during pre-mRNA processing generates edited isoforms of proteins. Recoding RNA editing is more widespread in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Editing levels rise strongly at metamorphosis, and Adar 5G1 null mutant flies lack editing events in hundreds of CNS transcripts; mutant flies have reduced viability, severely defective locomotion and age-dependent neurodegeneration. On the other hand, overexpressing an adult dADAR isoform with high enzymatic activity ubiquitously during larval and pupal stages is lethal. Advantage was taken of this to screen for genetic modifiers; Adar overexpression lethality is rescued by reduced dosage of the Rdl (Resistant to dieldrin), gene encoding a subunit of inhibitory GABA receptors. Reduced dosage of the Gad1 gene encoding the GABA synthetase also rescues Adar overexpression lethality. Drosophila Adar 5G1 mutant phenotypes are ameliorated by feeding GABA modulators. We demonstrate that neuronal excitability is linked to dADAR expression levels in individual neurons; Adar- overexpressing larval motor neurons show reduced excitability whereas Adar 5G1 null mutant or targeted Adar knockdown motor neurons exhibit increased excitability. GABA inhibitory signalling is impaired in human epileptic and autistic conditions, and vertebrate ADARs may have a relevant evolutionarily conserved control over neuronal excitability.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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