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  • 1
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    Conseil de l'Europe
    In:  Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie, Luxembourg, Conseil de l'Europe, vol. 23, no. B11, pp. 111-123, pp. 1892
    Publication Date: 2004
    Keywords: Crustal deformation (cf. Earthquake precursor: deformation or strain) ; Geodesy ; Tectonics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: Expression of particular drug transporters in response to antibiotic pressure is a critical element in the development of bacterial multidrug resistance, and represents a serious concern for human health. To obtain a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms, we have dissected the transcriptional activation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BmrC/BmrD of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis . By using promoter-GFP fusions and live cell array technology, we demonstrate a temporally controlled transcriptional activation of the bmrCD genes in response to antibiotics that target protein synthesis. Intriguingly, bmrCD expression only occurs during the late-exponential and stationary growth stages, irrespective of the timing of the antibiotic challenge. We show that this is due to tight transcriptional control by the transition state regulator AbrB. Moreover, our results show that the bmrCD genes are co-transcribed with bmrB ( yheJ ), a small open reading frame immediately upstream of bmrC that harbors three alternative stem-loop structures. These stem-loops are apparently crucial for antibiotic-induced bmrCD transcription. Importantly, the antibiotic-induced bmrCD expression requires translation of bmrB , which implies that BmrB serves as a regulatory leader peptide. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time that a ribosome-mediated transcriptional attenuation mechanism can control the expression of a multidrug ABC transporter.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Description: The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens. A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early...
    Keywords: Human Origins Special Feature
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists by 3000 years ago, considerably earlier than the dates in the land-use reconstructions commonly used by Earth scientists. Synthesis of knowledge contributed by more than 250 archaeologists highlighted gaps in archaeological expertise and data quality, which peaked for 2000 yr B.P. and in traditionally studied and wealthier regions. Archaeological reconstruction of global land-use history illuminates the deep roots of Earth’s transformation and challenges the emerging Anthropocene paradigm that large-scale anthropogenic global environmental change is mostly a recent phenomenon.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; geriatrics ; dosage requirements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Some physicians regard patients of Geriatric Units as a homogeneous population with respect to digoxin dosage requirements. Others advocate the use of pharmacokinetic models in prescribing digoxin for the elderly. Sixty in-patients of Geriatric Units were studied and the results compared with those previously obtained from 129 patients of other adult Units; all were receiving maintenance digoxin. For each patient the dose required to achieve a mean steady-state serum digoxin concentration of 1.6 nmol·l−1, the standardized dose, was calculated, assuming proportionality between the dose given and the concentration achieved. A mean of four estimates of standardized dose for each individual was used in the analysis. Threefold ranges of standardized dose covered the requirement of approximately 85% of patients both of Geriatric Units (62.5 to 187.5 μg per day) and of other adult Units (125 to 375 μg per day). The variables, serum creatinine concentration, sex, age, and body weight were of relatively little value in predicting the standardized dose for the patients in Geriatric Units. There was a sub-group of these in-patients for whom the standardized dose was extremely large.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: digoxin ; therapeutic drug monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A major role of therapeutic drug monitoring services is to advise on the dose of a drug which would be required to bring the concentration in the blood to within specific ‘therapeutic’ limits. Monitoring digoxin usage constitutes a substantial part of the work load. We have examined the potential variability in recommendations for digoxin dosages based on a series of serum digoxin measurements in each of 80 out-patients. In over a third of cases a dose, which seemed to be optimal on the basis of the first assay result, would have produced concentrations outside the conventional therapeutic range when the measurement was repeated. This was despite careful supervision of medication and the timing of the blood sample in relation to its administration. In routine practice the apparent variability in dose requirements would be far greater. Objectives of therapeutic drug monitoring services remain the same, the way forward would seem to lie in their taking on a heavy commitment to counsel and supervise patients before repeated blood sampling. However, effort and resources might be better channelled into producing simple prescribing aids relating the risk of cardiotoxicity directly to the size of the maintenance dose and the individual's renal function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: enalapril ; heart failure ; very old ; adverse reactions ; drug safety
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have introduced enalapril, in doses equal to or less than the 2.5 mg currently recommended, as an adjuvant to digoxin and diuretics in 17 patients of mean (SD) age 83 (5) years with severe heart failure. Only eleven patients tolerated its introduction. Unlike those reported in younger patients, all but one of the adverse drug reactions occurred 8 h or more after the first dose. Aged patients started on ACE inhibitors should be observed in hospital until stabilized on a maintenance dose. Three patients had an adverse reaction which differed in nature from those previously reported: acute confusional state, ataxia and mesenteric ischaemia. Ten patients were discharged on 5 mg or 10 mg maintenance doses of enalapril. In nine of them improvement on triple therapy was sustained for a minimum of three months. ACE inhibition was lost in the other patient when her compliance with enalapril therapy fell to around 75%: monitoring compliance is essential when ACE inhibitors are used in low dosages. Enalapril was withdrawn during follow up in three patients because of symptoms of mesenteric ischaemia and in four because of dramatic deterioration of renal function. One of the latter was found subsequently to have severe bilateral atheromatous renal artery stenosis. When isosorbide dinitrate was substituted for enalapril, symptoms of mesenteric ischaemia resolved and renal function returned to baseline. Continuing surveillance for adverse effects is essential in patients of this age group with severe heart failure, and the risk of occult renal artery stenosis requires regular biochemical screening during follow up. The benefit to cost ratio of ACE inhibitors might be improved in aged patients by their use at an earlier stage in the natural history of heart failure, when perfusion of essential organs is not grossly impaired, but carefully monitored trials would be necessary to establish this.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: rat pancreas ; cholecystokinin ; magnesium ; calcium ; acetylcholine ; amylase secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Application of either acetylcholine (ACh, 10−5 M) or cholecystokininoctapeptide (CCK-8, 10−8 M) to the isolated rat pancreas elicited large increases in amylase secretion, radiolabelled45Ca2+ influx and cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]i levels in zero and normal (1.1 mM) extracellular magnesium [Mg2+]o. Elevated [Mg2+]o significantly (p〈0.001) reduced the secretagogueevoked secretory responses and Ca2+ mobilisation. Stimulation of pancreatic segments with either ACh (10−5 and 10−6 M) or CCK-8 (10−8 and 10−10 M) resulted in marked elevation in Mg2+ concentration in effluent samples (net efflux). On removal of either ACh or CCK-8, Mg2+ concentration returned to resting level. In pancreatic acinar cells loaded the flourescent dye magfura, ACh and CCK-8 evoked marked reduction in cytosolic free Mg2+ concentration [Mg2+]i compared to the resting value of 0.82±0.03 mM (n=50) in normal medium in the absence of secretagogues. In elevated [Mg2+]o (10 mM) medium, [Mg2+]i rises to 0.98±0.04 mM (n=6). Addition of CCK-8 led to only a small reduction in [Mg2+ i in elevated [Mg2+]o. In Mg2+ loaded pancreatic acinar cells, Mg2+ is released in a time dependent manner and this efflux of Mg2+ was sensitive to sodium, extracellular amiloride (1 mM), dinitrophenol (10 mM) and lidocaine (1 mM). The results indicate that Mg2+ is acting as an intracellular messenger to regulate the mobilisation of Ca2+ which in turn mediates enzyme secretion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: rat pancreas ; cholecystokinin-octapeptide ; magnesium ; calcium ; secretion ; cyclic AMP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigates the effect of magnesium (Mg2+) on the secretory responses and the mobilization of calcium (Ca2+) and Mg2+ evoked by cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) in the exocrine rat pancreas. In the isolated intact perfused pancreas CCK-8 (10−10 M) produced marked increases in juice flow and total protein output in zero and normal (1.1 mM) extracellular Mg2+ [Mg2+]o compared to a much reduced secretory response in elevated (5 mM and 10 mM) [Mg2+]o Similar effects of perturbation of [Mg2+]o on amylase secretion and 45Ca2+ uptake (influx) were obtained in isolated pancreatic segments. In pancreatic acinar cells loaded with the fluorescent bioprobe fura-2 acetomethylester (AM), CCK-8 evoked marked increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in zero and normal [Mg2+]o compared to a much reduced response in elevated [Mg2+]o Pretreatment of acinar cells with either dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DB2 cAMP) or forskolin had no effect on the CCK-8 induced changes in [Ca2+]i. In magfura-2-loaded acinar cells CCK-8 (10−8 M) stimulated an initial transient rise in intracellular free Mg2+ concentration [Mg2+]i followed by a more prolonged and sustained decrease. This response was abolished when sodium Na+ was replaced with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). Incubation of acinar cells with 10 mM Mg2+ resulted in an elevation in [Mg2+]i. Upon stimulation with CCK-8, [Mg2+]i. decreased only slightly compared with the response obtained in normal [Mg2+]o. CCK-8 caused a net efflux of Mg2+ in pancreatic segments; this effect was abolished when extracellular sodium [Na+]o was replaced with either NMDG or choline. The results indicate that Mg2+ can regulate CCK-8-evoked secretory responses in the exocrine pancreas possibly via Ca2+ mobilization. Moreover, the movement of Mg2+ in pancreatic acinar cells is dependent upon extracellular Na+.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Statistics and computing 5 (1995), S. 191-202 
    ISSN: 1573-1375
    Keywords: regression ; Splus ; Matlab ; Fortran ; orthogonal invariance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been proposed as an alternative regression technique to more traditional approaches such as principal components regression and ridge regression. A number of algorithms have appeared in the literature which have been shown to be equivalent. Someone wishing to implement PLS regression in a programming language or within a statistical package must choose which algorithm to use. We investigate the implementation of univariate PLS algorithms within FORTRAN and the Matlab (1993) and Splus (1992) environments, comparing theoretical measures of execution speed based on flop counts with their observed execution times. We also comment on the ease with which the algorithms may be implemented in the different environments. Finally, we investigate the merits of using the orthogonal invariance of PLS regression to ‘improve’ the algorithms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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