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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-13
    Description: The adult mouse mammary epithelium contains self-sustained cell lineages that form the inner luminal and outer basal cell layers, with stem and progenitor cells contributing to its proliferative and regenerative potential. A key issue in breast cancer biology is the effect of genomic lesions in specific mammary cell lineages on tumour heterogeneity and progression. The impact of transforming events on fate conversion in cancer cells of origin and thus their contribution to tumour heterogeneity remains largely elusive. Using in situ genetic lineage tracing and limiting dilution transplantation, we have unravelled the potential of PIK3CA(H1047R), one of the most frequent mutations occurring in human breast cancer, to induce multipotency during tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. Here we show that expression of PIK3CA(H1047R) in lineage-committed basal Lgr5-positive and luminal keratin-8-positive cells of the adult mouse mammary gland evokes cell dedifferentiation into a multipotent stem-like state, suggesting this to be a mechanism involved in the formation of heterogeneous, multi-lineage mammary tumours. Moreover, we show that the tumour cell of origin influences the frequency of malignant mammary tumours. Our results define a key effect of PIK3CA(H1047R) on mammary cell fate in the pre-neoplastic mammary gland and show that the cell of origin of PIK3CA(H1047R) tumours dictates their malignancy, thus revealing a mechanism underlying tumour heterogeneity and aggressiveness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koren, Shany -- Reavie, Linsey -- Couto, Joana Pinto -- De Silva, Duvini -- Stadler, Michael B -- Roloff, Tim -- Britschgi, Adrian -- Eichlisberger, Tobias -- Kohler, Hubertus -- Aina, Olulanu -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Bentires-Alj, Mohamed -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):114-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14669. Epub 2015 Aug 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI), 4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Department of Pathology, Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266975" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology ; Cell Dedifferentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage/*genetics ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Female ; Humans ; Mammary Glands, Animal/metabolism/pathology ; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/*genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; Multipotent Stem Cells/*metabolism/pathology ; Mutation/genetics ; Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics/pathology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: In the 1950s, the drug thalidomide, administered as a sedative to pregnant women, led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite the teratogenicity of thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, these immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion-associated dysplasia. IMiDs target the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)) and promote the ubiquitination of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 by CRL4(CRBN). Here we present crystal structures of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes that CRBN is a substrate receptor within CRL4(CRBN) and enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Using an unbiased screen, we identified the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4(CRBN) while the ligase complex is recruiting IKZF1 or IKZF3 for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can modulate an E3 ubiquitin ligase and thereby upregulate or downregulate the ubiquitination of proteins.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423819/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423819/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fischer, Eric S -- Bohm, Kerstin -- Lydeard, John R -- Yang, Haidi -- Stadler, Michael B -- Cavadini, Simone -- Nagel, Jane -- Serluca, Fabrizio -- Acker, Vincent -- Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M -- Tichkule, Ritesh B -- Schebesta, Michael -- Forrester, William C -- Schirle, Markus -- Hassiepen, Ulrich -- Ottl, Johannes -- Hild, Marc -- Beckwith, Rohan E J -- Harper, J Wade -- Jenkins, Jeremy L -- Thoma, Nicolas H -- AG011085/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011085/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):49-53. doi: 10.1038/nature13527. Epub 2014 Jul 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Petersplatz 10, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 250 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Petersplatz 10, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland [3] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Novartis Pharma AG, Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Campus, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043012" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA-Binding Proteins/agonists/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/agonists/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Peptide Hydrolases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Substrate Specificity ; Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives/*chemistry/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-03-26
    Description: RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the ability of exogenously introduced double-stranded RNA to silence expression of homologous sequences. Silencing is initiated when the enzyme Dicer processes the double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Small RNA molecules are incorporated into Argonaute-protein-containing effector complexes, which they guide to complementary targets to mediate different types of gene silencing, specifically post-transcriptional gene silencing and chromatin-dependent gene silencing. Although endogenous small RNAs have crucial roles in chromatin-mediated processes across kingdoms, efforts to initiate chromatin modifications in trans by using siRNAs have been inherently difficult to achieve in all eukaryotic cells. Using fission yeast, here we show that RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation is negatively controlled by the highly conserved RNA polymerase-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1C). Temporary expression of a synthetic hairpin RNA in Paf1C mutants triggers stable heterochromatin formation at homologous loci, effectively silencing genes in trans. This repressed state is propagated across generations by the continual production of secondary siRNAs, independently of the synthetic hairpin RNA. Our data support a model in which Paf1C prevents targeting of nascent transcripts by the siRNA-containing RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex and thereby epigenetic gene silencing, by promoting efficient transcription termination and rapid release of the RNA from the site of transcription. We show that although compromised transcription termination is sufficient to initiate the formation of bi-stable heterochromatin by trans-acting siRNAs, impairment of both transcription termination and nascent transcript release is imperative to confer stability to the repressed state. Our work uncovers a novel mechanism for small-RNA-mediated epigenome regulation and highlights fundamental roles for Paf1C and the RNAi machinery in building epigenetic memory.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398878/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398878/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kowalik, Katarzyna Maria -- Shimada, Yukiko -- Flury, Valentin -- Stadler, Michael Beda -- Batki, Julia -- Buhler, Marc -- 280410/European Research Council/International -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):248-52. doi: 10.1038/nature14337. Epub 2015 Mar 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Petersplatz 10, 4003 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Petersplatz 10, 4003 Basel, Switzerland [3] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Eotvos Lorand University, Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, 1/A Pazmany Peter setany, Budapest 1117, Hungary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25807481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/genetics ; Genes, Fungal/genetics ; Heterochromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/*metabolism ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics ; Schizosaccharomyces/*genetics/*metabolism ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs) with an average methylation of 30%. These represent CpG-poor distal regulatory regions as evidenced by location, DNase I hypersensitivity, presence of enhancer chromatin marks and enhancer activity in reporter assays. LMRs are occupied by DNA-binding factors and their binding is necessary and sufficient to create LMRs. A comparison of neuronal and stem-cell methylomes confirms this dependency, as cell-type-specific LMRs are occupied by cell-type-specific transcription factors. This study provides methylome references for the mouse and shows that DNA-binding factors locally influence DNA methylation, enabling the identification of active regulatory regions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stadler, Michael B -- Murr, Rabih -- Burger, Lukas -- Ivanek, Robert -- Lienert, Florian -- Scholer, Anne -- van Nimwegen, Erik -- Wirbelauer, Christiane -- Oakeley, Edward J -- Gaidatzis, Dimos -- Tiwari, Vijay K -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7378):490-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10716.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170606" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; CpG Islands ; Cytosine/*metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology ; *Epigenomics ; Mice ; Neurons/cytology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Stem Cells/cytology ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-11-12
    Description: The central amygdala (CEA), a nucleus predominantly composed of GABAergic inhibitory neurons, is essential for fear conditioning. How the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear are encoded within CEA inhibitory circuits is not understood. Using in vivo electrophysiological, optogenetic and pharmacological approaches in mice, we show that neuronal activity in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CEl) is required for fear acquisition, whereas conditioned fear responses are driven by output neurons in the medial subdivision (CEm). Functional circuit analysis revealed that inhibitory CEA microcircuits are highly organized and that cell-type-specific plasticity of phasic and tonic activity in the CEl to CEm pathway may gate fear expression and regulate fear generalization. Our results define the functional architecture of CEA microcircuits and their role in the acquisition and regulation of conditioned fear behaviour.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ciocchi, Stephane -- Herry, Cyril -- Grenier, Francois -- Wolff, Steffen B E -- Letzkus, Johannes J -- Vlachos, Ioannis -- Ehrlich, Ingrid -- Sprengel, Rolf -- Deisseroth, Karl -- Stadler, Michael B -- Muller, Christian -- Luthi, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2010 Nov 11;468(7321):277-82. doi: 10.1038/nature09559.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068837" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Amygdala/anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiology ; Animals ; Conditioning, Classical/*physiology ; Fear/*physiology ; Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neural Inhibition/*physiology ; Neural Pathways/cytology/*physiology ; Neuronal Plasticity/physiology ; Neurons/physiology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-04-03
    Description: Although XRN2 proteins are highly conserved eukaryotic 5'-〉3' exonucleases, little is known about their function in animals. Here, we characterize Caenorhabditis elegans XRN2, which we find to be a broadly and constitutively expressed nuclear protein. An xrn-2 null mutation or loss of XRN2 catalytic activity causes a molting defect and early larval arrest. However, by generating a conditionally mutant xrn-2ts strain de novo through an approach that may be also applicable to other genes of interest, we reveal further functions in fertility, during embryogenesis and during additional larval stages. Consistent with the known role of XRN2 in controlling microRNA (miRNA) levels, we can demonstrate that loss of XRN2 activity stabilizes some rapidly decaying miRNAs. Surprisingly, however, other miRNAs continue to decay rapidly in xrn-2ts animals. Thus, XRN2 has unanticipated miRNA specificity in vivo , and its diverse developmental functions may relate to distinct substrates. Finally, our global analysis of miRNA stability during larval stage 1 reveals that miRNA passenger strands (miR*s) are substantially less stable than guide strands (miRs), supporting the notion that the former are mostly byproducts of biogenesis rather than a less abundant functional species.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-09-06
    Description: We have recently shown that transcription factor binding leads to defined reduction in DNA methylation, allowing for the identification of active regulatory regions from high-resolution methylomes. Here, we present MethylSeekR, a computational tool to accurately identify such footprints from bisulfite-sequencing data. Applying our method to a large number of published human methylomes, we demonstrate its broad applicability and generalize our previous findings from a neuronal differentiation system to many cell types and tissues. MethylSeekR is available as an R package at www.bioconductor.org .
    Keywords: Computational Methods, Chromatin and Epigenetics, Genomics
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-04-03
    Description: : QuasR is a package for the integrated analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in R, covering all steps from read preprocessing, alignment and quality control to quantification. QuasR supports different experiment types (including RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and Bis-seq) and analysis variants (e.g. paired-end, stranded, spliced and allele-specific), and is integrated in Bioconductor so that its output can be directly processed for statistical analysis and visualization. Availability and implementation: QuasR is implemented in R and C/C++. Source code and binaries for major platforms (Linux, OS X and MS Windows) are available from Bioconductor ( www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/QuasR.html ). The package includes a ‘vignette’ with step-by-step examples for typical work flows. Contact: michael.stadler@fmi.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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