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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Homologous recombination ; Protoplast transformation ; β-Glucuronidase ; Maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The requirements for homologous recombination between plasmid DNA molecules have been studied using the PEG (polyethylene glycol)-mediated transformation system of maize (Zea mays L.) protoplasts coupled with the transient expression assay for β-glucuronidase (GUS). Two plasmids were introduced into maize protoplasts; one plasmid (pB×26) contained a genomic clone of the Adh1 maize gene; the other plasmid (piGUS) was a promoterless construction containing part of intron A of the Adhl gene fused to the gusA coding sequence. Thus, the two vectors shared an effective homologous region consisting of a 459 by (Hindlll—PvuII) fragment of the yAdh1 intron A sequence. An active gusA fusion gene would result upon homologous recombination between the plasmids within the intron A sequence, and indeed GUS activity was observed in extracts following co-transformation of maize protoplasts with the two plasmids. The presence of recombinant DNA molecules in protoplast DNA isolated 1 day after co-transformation was verified using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blots. For efficient homologous recombination, both plasmids had to be linearized. The recombination reaction was induced by restriction of the plasmid molecules either inside the effective homologous region or at the borders of the intron sequence. However, the presence of even small, terminal, nonhomologous sequences at the 3′ end of the pB×26 fragment inhibited the recombination reaction. Also, both ends of the linearized piGUS DNA molecules were involved in the recombination reaction. The results revealed some features of homologous recombination reactions occurring in plant cells which cannot be accommodated by mechanisms postulated for similar reactions in animal system and in lower eukaryotes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Zea mays L. ; Transformation ; Protoplast ; Kanamycin ; β-glucuronidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The importance of cell culture conditions, including the use of feeder cells, on protoplast growth and transformation in maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated. Total GUS activity, measured two days after transformation, was five-fold higher in protoplasts cultured on feeder cells compared to those grown in the absence of feeder cells. Since the specific activity of GUS was only slightly higher in the transformed protoplasts plated over feeder cells, the stimulation in transient gene expression resulted mainly from the improved environment provided by the feeder system. For stable transformation, either PEG treatment or electroporation of protoplasts was used to introduce the neo gene. When PEG was used, over 85% of the putative transformants (resistant to kanamycin) contained the neo gene. The combination of PEG transformation and the optimized cell culture protocol using feeder cells enabled the selection of about 100 stably transformed lines per gFW of cells. Electroporation was less efficient.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Oryza sativa L. ; indica rice, cotransformation ; protoplast ; kanamycin ; β ; glucuronidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Protoplasts of the indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, IR54, were transiently transformed with the gusA gene and stably transformed with both the neo and gusA genes. We show that PEG-mediated co-transformation of protoplasts with two genes on separate plasmids coupled with selection on kanamycin is an effective way of transferring foreign gene(s) into the indica rice genome. The efficiency of co-transformation was generally 20–30%, i.e. the frequency of kanamycin-resistant calli having both the neo and gusA active genes. Southern blot analysis using a probe for gusA indicated integration of several copies of the gene, often as head to tail tandem repeats.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene ; maize ; protoplasts ; stable co-transformation ; transformation ; Zea mays L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An efficient co-transformation protocol using polyethylene glycol was developed for Zea mays L. (cv. A188 × BMS) protoplasts isolated from suspension culture cells. Co-transformation was accomplished by using plasmid constructions containing β-glucuronidase (gusA) or neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene coding sequences; both were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Protoplast culture and transformation conditions were optimized to assure efficient recovery of transformed cells. The overall efficiency of transformation was 1 × 10−4 (calculated per viable protoplast plated). Among kanamycin-resistant lines, 50% showed a high level of GUS activity (above one unit). Southern blot hybridization confirmed the presence of numerous gusA and neo coding sequences in the maize genome. In two analyzed lines, integrated sequences appeared to be organized in tandem head-to-tail repeats. Results also indicated that the integrated sequences were partially methylated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: maize gene expression ; protoplasts ; transient assays ; transcriptional regulation ; zein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three DNA regions required for high levels of transcription were identified by transient gene expression analysis of the 5′ flanking region of a 19 kDa α-zein gene. For these analyses, the zein promoter region was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and assayed by transient expression in carrot protoplasts. A 107-bp sequence (-114/-8) containing the TATA box resulted in low levels of GUS activity. Addition of the proximal 75 bp (-189/-114) doubled the level of GUS expression, and a further increase in expression was obtained when additional upstream sequences (-483/-226) were placed 5′ of the zein promoters. Zein upstream sequences enhanced transcription independently of the-189/-114 region. Although the-189/-114 region was not essential for transcription, it was important to obtain maximum GUS activity. A 121 bp upstream sequence (-347/-226) that contains the conserved TGTAAAG sequence gave high levels of GUS activity when placed in either orientation 5′ of the zein promoter sequences. However, nucleotides-347 to-309, containing the TGTAAAG sequence, could be deleted from this fragment without a significant change in GUS activity. Zein upstream sequences did not promote transcription of the GUS gene in somatic maize protoplasts. The upstream activating sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter placed 5′ of deletion mutants of the zein promoter also failed to produce GUS activity above background.
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