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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; Volume 115
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: An Alfven Wave Reflection (AWR) model is proposed that provides closure for strong field-aligned currents (FACs) driven by the magnetopause reconnection in the magnetospheres of planets having no significant ionospheric and surface electrical conductance. The model is based on properties of the Alfven waves, generated at high altitudes and reflected from the low-conductivity surface of the planet. When magnetospheric convection is very slow, the incident and reflected Alfven waves propagate along approximately the same path. In this case, the net field-aligned currents will be small. However, as the convection speed increases. the reflected wave is displaced relatively to the incident wave so that the incident and reflected waves no longer compensate each other. In this case, the net field-aligned current may be large despite the lack of significant ionospheric and surface conductivity. Our estimate shows that for typical solar wind conditions at Mercury, the magnitude of Region 1-type FACs in Mercury's magnetosphere may reach hundreds of kilo-Amperes. This AWR model of field-aligned currents may provide a solution to the long-standing problem of the closure of FACs in the Mercury's magnetosphere. c2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Icarus; Volume 209; Issue 1; 40-45
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity between two hemispheres results in the formation of additional, interhemispheric field-aligned currents flowing between conjugate ionospheres within two auroral zones. These interhemispheric currents are especially significant during summer-winter conditions when there is a significant asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. In such conditions, these currents may be comparable in magnitude with the Region 1 field-aligned currents. In this case, the R1 current is the sum of two FACs: one is going from to the solar wind, and another is flowing between conjugate ionospheres. These interhemispheric currents can also cause the formation of auroras extended along the nightside polar cap boundary, which may be related to the so-called double auroral oval. In this study, we present the results of analytical and numerical solutions for the interhemispheric currents and their effect on the Region 1 currents.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN15366
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this research, we used numerical simulation to study the effect of interhemispheric field-aligned currents (IHCs), going between two conjugate ionospheres in two hemispheres, on the equivalent ionospheric currents (EICs). We computed the maps of these EICs In two hemispheres during summer-winter conditions, when the effect of the IHCs is especially significant. The main results may be summarized as follows. In winter hemisphere, the IHCs may significantly exceed and be a substitute for the local R1 currents, and they may strongly affect the magnitude, location, and direction of the EICs In the nightside winter auroral ionosphere. While in summer polar cap the EICs tend to flow sunward, and in winter polar cap the EICs turn toward dawn due to the effect of the IHCs. The well-known reversal in the direction of the EICs in the vicinity of the midnight meridian, in winter hemisphere, is observed not at the polar caps boundary (as usually expected) but equatorward of this boundary in the region of the IHCs location. The IHCs in winter hemisphere may be, in fact, not only a substitute for the R1 currents but also the major source of the Westward Auroral Electrojet, observed In both hemispheres during substorm activity.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis; Geophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41229 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (ISSN 2169-9402) (e-ISSN 2169-9402); 121; 2; 1339-1348
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this study, we examine a large number of plasma structures (filaments), observed with the Cluster spacecraft during 2 years (2007-2008) in the dayside magnetosphere but consisting of magnetosheath plasma. To reduce the effects observed in the cusp regions and on magnetosphere flanks, we consider these events predominantly inside the narrow cone less than 30 about the subsolar point. Two important features of these filaments are (i) their stable antisunward (earthward) motion inside the magnetosphere, whereas the ambient magnetospheric plasma moves usually in the opposite direction (sunward), and (ii) between these filaments and the magnetopause, there is a region of magnetospheric plasma, which separates these filaments from the magnetosheath. The stable earthward motion of these magnetopause show the possible disconnection of these filaments from the magnetosheath, as suggested earlier by many researchers. The results also show that these events cannot be a result of back-and-forth motions of magnetopause position or surface waves propagating on the magnetopause. Another important feature of these filaments is their rotation about the filament axis, which might be a result of their passage through the velocity shear on magnetopause boundary. After crossing the velocity shear, the filaments get a rotational velocity, which has opposite directions in the noon-dusk and noon-dawn sectors. This rotation velocity may be an important factor, supporting the stability of these filaments and providing their motion into the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN40892 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (ISSN 2169-9402) (e-ISSN 2169-9402); 121; 8; 7699-7712
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (〉2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/Interplanetary Magnetic Field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is about 0.9. The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual electron fluxes is stable and incredibly high.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Fifth Space Weather Symposium; 20-23 Jan. 2008; New Orleans, LA; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this paper, we examined plasma structures (filaments), observed in the dayside magnetosphere but containing magnetosheath plasma. These filaments show the stable antisunward motion (while the ambient magnetospheric plasma moved in the opposite direction) and the existence of a strip of magnetospheric plasma, separating these filaments from the magnetosheath. These results, however, contradict both theoretical studies and simulations by Schindler (1979), Ma et al. (1991), Dai and Woodward (1994, 1998), and other researchers, who reported that the motion of such filaments through the magnetosphere is possible only when their magnetic field is directed very close to the ambient magnetic field, which is not the situation that is observed. In this study, we show that this seeming contradiction may be related to different events as the theoretical studies and simulations are related to the case when the filament magnetic field is about aligned with filament orientation, whereas the observations show that the magnetic field in these filaments may be rotating. In this case, the rotating magnetic field, changing incessantly its direction, drastically affects the penetration of plasma filaments into the magnetosphere. In this case, the filaments with rotating magnetic field, even if in each moment it is significantly inclined to the ambient magnetic field, may propagate through the magnetosphere, if their average (for the rotation period) magnetic field is aligned with the ambient magnetic field. This shows that neglecting the rotation of magnetic field in these filaments may lead to wrong results.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN40899 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (ISSN 2169-9380) (e-ISSN 2169-9402); 121; 8; 7713–7727
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere are important tasks of US Space Weather Program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method, and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two of the main elements of such prediction scheme are: an appropriate geomagnetic activity index, and an appropriate coupling function (the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity). We have developed a new index of geomagnetic activity, the Polar Magnetic (PM) index and an improved version of solar wind coupling function. PM index is similar to the existing polar cap PC index but it shows much better correlation with upstream solar wind/IMF data and other events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We investigate the correlation of PM index with upstream solar wind/IMF data for 10 years (1995-2004) that include both low and high solar activity. We also have introduced a new prediction function for the predicting of cross-polar-cap voltage and Joule heating based on using both PM index and upstream solar wind/IMF data. As we show such prediction function significantly increase the reliability of prediction of these important parameters. The correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted values of these parameters are approx. 0.9 and higher.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 2007 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union; 10-14 Dec. 2007; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (greater than 2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004-2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: American Geophysical Union 2008 Joint Assembly; 27-30 May 2008; Fort Lauderdale, FL; United States
    Format: text
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