Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 20XX. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 46(12), (2019): 6435-6442, doi:10.1029/2019GL082523.
Acoustic Doppler current profiler and conductivity‐temperature‐depth data acquired in Yellowstone Lake reveal the presence of a buoyant plume above the “Deep Hole” hydrothermal system, located southeast of Stevenson Island. Distributed venting in the ~200 × 200‐m hydrothermal field creates a plume with vertical velocities of ~10 cm/s in the mid‐water column. Salinity profiles indicate that during the period of strong summer stratification the plume rises to a neutral buoyancy horizon at ~45‐m depth, corresponding to a ~70‐m rise height, where it generates an anomaly of ~5% (−0.0014 psu) relative to background lake water. We simulate the plume with a numerical model and find that a heat flux of 28 MW reproduces the salinity and vertical velocity observations, corresponding to a mass flux of 1.4 × 103 kg/s. When observational uncertainties are considered, the heat flux could range between 20 to 50 MW.
The authors thank Yellowstone National Park Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, The Global Foundation for Ocean Exploration, and Paul Fucile for logistical support. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation grants EAR‐1516361 to R. S., EAR‐1514865 to K. L., and EAR‐1515283 to R. H. and J. F. All work in Yellowstone National Park was completed under an authorized Yellowstone research permit (YELL‐2018‐SCI‐7018). CTD and ADCP profiles reported in this paper are available through the Marine Geoscience Data System (doi:10.1594/IEDA/324713 and doi:10.1594/IEDA/324712, accessed last on 17 April 2019, respectively).
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