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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    San Diego [u.a.] : Academic Press
    Call number: PIK W 513-00-0072
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 415 p.
    ISBN: 012460370x
    Series Statement: Physiological Ecology Series ;
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Huang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xingjie; Shi, Zheng; Lawrence, David M; Koven, Charles D; Xia, Jianyang; Du, Zhenggang; Kluzek, Erik; Luo, Yiqi (2018): Matrix approach to land carbon cycle modeling: A case study with the Community Land Model. Global Change Biology, 24(3), 1394-1404, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13948
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has been commonly represented by a series of C balance equations to track C influxes into and effluxes out of individual pools in earth system models (ESMs). This representation matches our understanding of C cycle processes well but makes it difficult to track model behaviors. It is also computationally expensive, limiting the ability to conduct comprehensive parametric sensitivity analyses. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a matrix approach, which reorganizes the C balance equations in the original ESM into one matrix equation without changing any modeled C cycle processes and mechanisms. We applied the matrix approach to the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) with vertically resolved biogeochemistry. The matrix equation exactly reproduces litter and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics of the standard CLM4.5 across different spatial-temporal scales. The matrix approach enables effective diagnosis of system properties such as C residence time and attribution of global change impacts to relevant processes. We illustrated, for example, the impacts of CO2 fertilization on litter and SOC dynamics can be easily decomposed into the relative contributions from C input, allocation of external C into different C pools, nitrogen regulation, altered soil environmental conditions, and vertical mixing along the soil profile. In addition, the matrix tool can accelerate model spin-up, permit thorough parametric sensitivity tests, enable pool-based data assimilation, and facilitate tracking and benchmarking of model behaviors. Overall, the matrix approach can make a broad range of future modeling activities more efficient and effective.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 12.0 MBytes
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  • 3
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 413 (2001), S. 622-625 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts a 1.4–5.8 °C average increase in the global surface temperature over the period 1990 to 2100 (ref. 1). These estimates of future warming are greater than earlier projections, which is ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO2 partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO2 exchange were determined for Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2 600, 6 500 and 26 000 cm3), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO2 level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO2 level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO2 uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO2 during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO2 uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO2 level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO2. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO2 level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Biomass accumulation and area expansion of newly initiated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica were studied to help understand the high productivity of this Crassulacean acid metabolism species. In a glasshouse, both dry weight and area increased more and more rapidly for about 30 days and then increased linearly with time up to 63 days. The relative growth rate averaged 0. 12 day-1, comparable to values for productive C3 and C4 plants. New cladodes initiated on basal cladodes with 2-fold higher initial dry weight grew twice as fast. Drought reduced biomass accumulation and area expansion of new cladodes by 62 and 52%, respectively. A 70% reduction in irradiation decreased biomass accumulation of new cladodes by 17% and their thickness by 11%. In a growth chamber containing 720 μmol Co2 (mol air)-1, biomass of newly initiated cladodes was 7% higher, area was 8% less, specific mass was 16% higher and less carbohydrate was translocated from basal cladodes than for 360 μmol Co2 mol-1. The large capacity for storage of carbohydrate and water in basal cladodes of O. ficus-indica apparently buffered environmental stresses, thereby reducing their effects on growth of daughter cladodes
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: The effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis, respiration, and growth efficiency of sunflower plants at the whole-stand level was investigated using a whole-system gas exchange facility (the EcoCELLs at the Desert Research Institute) and a 13C natural tracer method. Total daily photosynthesis (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and respiration under the elevated CO2 treatment were consistently higher than under the ambient CO2 treatment. The overall level of enhancement due to elevated CO2 was consistent with published results for a typical C3 plant species. The patterns of daily GPP and NPP through time approximated logistic curves under both CO2 treatments. Regression analysis indicated that both the rate of increase (the parameter ‘r’) and the maximum value (the parameter ‘k’) of daily GPP and NPP under the elevated CO2 treatment were significantly higher than under the ambient CO2 treatment. The percentage increase in daily GPP due to elevated CO2 varied systematically through time according to the logistic equations used for the two treatments. The GPP increase due to elevated CO2 ranged from approximately 10% initially to 73% at the peak, while declining to about 33%, as predicted by the ratio of the two maximum values. Different values of percentage increase in GPP and NPP were obtained at different sampling times. This result demonstrated that one-time measurements of percentage increases due to elevated CO2 could be misleading, thereby making interpretation difficult. Although rhizosphere respiration was substantially enhanced by elevated CO2, no effect of elevated CO2 on R:P (respiration:photosynthesis) was found, suggesting an invariant NPP:GPP ratio during the entire experiment. Further validation of the notion of an invariant NPP:GPP ratio may significantly simplify the process of quantifying terrestrial carbon sequestration by directly relating total photosynthesis to net primary production.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Studies have suggested that more carbon is fixed due to a large increase in photosynthesis in plant–soil systems exposed to elevated CO2 than could subsequently be found in plant biomass and soils –- the locally missing carbon phenomenon. To further understand this phenomenon, an experiment was carried out using EcoCELLs which are open-flow, mass-balance systems at the mesocosm scale. Naturally occurring 13C tracers were also used to separately measure plant-derived carbon and soil-derived carbon. The experiment included two EcoCELLs, one under ambient atmospheric CO2 and the other under elevated CO2 (ambient plus 350 μL L− 1). By matching carbon fluxes with carbon pools, the issue of locally missing carbon was investigated. Flux-based net primary production (NPPf) was similar to pool-based primary production (NPPp) under ambient CO2, and the discrepancy between the two carbon budgets (12 g C m− 2, or 4% of NPPf) was less than measurement errors. Therefore, virtually all carbon entering the system under ambient CO2 was accounted for at the end of the experiment. Under elevated CO2, however, the amount of NPPf was much higher than NPPp, resulting in missing carbon of approximately 80 g C m− 2 or 19% of NPPf which was much higher than measurement errors. This was additional to the 96% increase in rhizosphere respiration and the 50% increase in root growth, two important components of locally missing carbon. The mystery of locally missing carbon under elevated CO2 remains to be further investigated. Volatile organic carbon, carbon loss due to root washing, and measurement errors are discussed as some of the potential contributing factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: This study used an environmentally controlled plant growth facility, EcoCELLs, to measure canopy gas exchanges directly and to examine the effects of elevated [CO2] on canopy radiation- and water-use efficiencies. Sunflowers (Helianthus annus var. Mammoth) were grown at ambient (399 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (746 μmol mol−1) for 53 days in EcoCELLs. Whole canopy carbon- and water-fluxes were measured continuously during the period of the experiment. The results indicated that elevated [CO2] enhanced daily total canopy carbon- and water-fluxes by 53% and 11%, respectively, on a ground-area basis, resulting in a 54% increase in radiation-use efficiency (RUE) based on intercepted photosynthetic active radiation and a 26% increase in water-use efficiency (WUE) by the end of the experiment. Canopy carbon- and water-fluxes at both CO2 treatments varied with canopy development. They were small at 22 days after planting (DAP) and gradually increased to the maxima at 46 DAP. When canopy carbon- and water-fluxes were expressed on a leaf-area basis, no effect of CO2 was found for canopy water-flux while elevated [CO2] still enhanced canopy carbon-flux by 29%, on average. Night-time canopy carbon-flux was 32% higher at elevated than at ambient [CO2]. In addition, RUE and WUE displayed strong diurnal variations, high at noon and low in the morning or afternoon for WUE but opposite for RUE. This study provided direct evidence that plant canopy may consume more, instead of less, water but utilize both water and radiation more efficiently at elevated than at ambient [CO2], at least during the exponential growth period as illustrated in this experiment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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