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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Orientale impact occurred in rugged highlands on the southwestern limb of the Moon and was the last of the major basin-forming events. Valuable insight concerning lateral and vertical changes in the composition of the lunar crust can be provided by studies of material exposed by lunar impact basins. These impacts have excavated material from a variety of depths and deposited this ejecta in a systematic manner. In order to investigate the composition of materials exposed on the interior of Orientale basin, near-infrared reflectance spectra were collected for units within the Cordillera ring.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A portion of the mare-bounding (MB) ring of Humorum Basin is composed of pure anorthosite while other parts of the ring are composed of noritic anorthosite. An episode of mare volcanism emplaced basaltic units in the region northwest of the MB ring after the Humorum impact event. Subsequently, large impacts emplaced a veneer of highlands material atop the basalt flows. Some mare material could have been mixed with this highlands debris either by local mixing by secondary craters or by vertical mixing. Spectra for most other highlands units in the region indicate a noritic anorthosite lithology. Spectra of mare basalts in Mare Humorum and nearby mare flooded craters show relatively deep absorption bands due to the presence of abundant high-Ca pyroxene. An analysis of spectra for a small number of craters in the highlands west of the outer ring of Humorum reveals the presence of high-Ca pyroxene. This suggests the possible presence of an extensive gabbroic province.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1133-1134
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both visual and near-infrared spectral observations are combined with multispectral imaging to study the Orientale interior and exterior, the Cruger region, Grimaldi Region, the Schiller-Schickard Region, and the Humorum Region of the Moon. It was concluded that anorthosites occur in the Inner Rook Mountains of Orientale, the inner ring of Grimaldi, and the main ring of Humorum. Imaging spectroscopy shows that the entire eastern Inner Rook Mountains are composed of anorthosites. Orientale ejecta are strikingly like the surface materials in the region where Apollo 16 landed. This similarity indicates similar mineralogy, i.e., noritic anorthosite. Thus, Orientile ejecta is more mafic than the Inner Rook Mountains. This situation is also true for the Nectaris, Humorum, and Gramaldi basins. Isolated areas of the Orientale region show the presence of gabbroic rocks, but, in general, Orientale ejecta are noritic anorthosites, which contain much more low-Ca pyroxene than high-Ca pyroxene. Ancient (pre-Orientale) mare volcanism apparently occurred in several areas of the western limb.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 220-222
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The preliminary analysis and interpretation of near infrared spectra obtained for both the interior and exterior deposits associated with the Tycho crater is presented. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine the composition and stratigraphy of the highland crust in the Tycho target site; (2) to determine the likely composition of the primary ejecta which may be present in ray deposits; (3) to investigate the nature of spectral units defined in previous studies; (4) to further investigate the nature and origin of both the bright and dark haloes around the rim crest; and (5) to compare the compositions determined for the Tycho units with those of the Aristarchus crater as well as typical highland deposits. The spectra obtained for the interior areas exhibit similar spectral features. These include relatively strong 1 micron absorption bands whose minima are centered between 0.97 and 0.99 microns and shallow to intermediate continuum slopes. The spectra generally exhibit indications of a 1.3 micron feature consistent with the presence of Fe(2+) bearing plagioclase feldspar. The strong 1 micron absorption features indicate a dominant high Ca clinopyroxene component. Results obtained from the ejecta deposits show that the spectrum of the inner, bright halo is almost identical with those obtained for interior units. The spectrum of the dark halo exhibits a wide, relatively shallow absorption feature centered at 1.01 microns, a 1.3 micron absorption, and a steep continuum slope. This spectrum is interpreted as indicating the presence of pyroxene, Fe-bearing feldspar, and a significant component of Fe-bearing impact melt glass. Finally, the spectra of spots inside Tycho show similarity with certain spectra for Aristarchus. However, the suite of spectra obtained for Tycho exhibits a different trend in terms of band center versus width.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 211-213
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A portion of the highlands terrain northwest of the Humorum basin, a large multiringed impact structure on the southwestern portion of the lunar nearside, exhibits anomalous characteristics in several remote sensing data sets. A variety of remote sensing studies of the terrain northwest of Humorum basin were performed in order to determine the composition and origin of the anomalous unit as well as the composition of the highland material exposed by the Humorum impact event. It was found that at least a portion of the mare-bounding ring of Humorum is composed of pure anorthosite. Other details of the study are reported.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 223-225
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Compact remote spectroscopic instruments that could provide detailed information about mineralogy, organic and biomaterials on a planetary surface over a relatively large area are desirable for NASA s planetary exploration program. Ability to explore a large area on the planetary surfaces as well as in impact craters from a fixed location of a rover or lander will enhance the probability of selecting target rocks of high scientific contents as well as desirable sites in search of organic compounds and biomarkers on Mars and other planetary bodies. We have developed a combined remote inelastic scattering (Raman) and laser-induced fluorescence emission (LIFE) compact instrument capable of providing accurate information about minerals, organic and biogenic materials to a radial distance of 100 m. Here we present the Raman and LIFE (R-LIFE) data set.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 18; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-18
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Near-IR reflectance spectra (0.6-2.5 microns) and CCD images in the extended visible range (0.4-1.0 microns) obtained with Earth-based telescopes have been used to investigate the composition and origin of formations in the Schiller-Schickard region of the Moon. Of particular interest are the Schickard light plains, which represent an area of mantled mare basalt, or cryptomare. Here local pre-existing mare basalts were eroded and incorporated into a highlands-rich deposit by eject a from the Orientale Basin. Spectra observations of mature and immature highland and mare surfaces, as well as dark-halo crater materials provide information on the mafic mineralogy of features in the area. Analyses of the '1 micron' absorption band and spectral mixing models indicate that selected spots in the light plains contain on the order of 50 percent mare basalt. CCD image cubes can be used to map the amount of basalt in the light plains and evaluate changes with radial distance from Orientale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 133-134
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The MINUTES instrument of the Athena Precursor Experiment (APEX) on the Mars Surveyor 2001 lander mission will perform the first thermal infrared remote sensing observations from the surface of another planet. Experience gained from this experiment will be used to guide observations from identical instruments mounted on the Athena rovers, to be launched in 2003 and 2005. The utility of infrared spectrometers in determining the mineralogic composition of geologic surfaces from airborne and spaceborne platforms has been amply demonstrated. However, relatively little experience exists in using functionally similar instruments on the ground in the context of planetary science. What work has been done on this problem has mostly utilized field spectrometers that are designed to look down on nearby target rocks. While many Mini-TES observations will be made with this type of geometry, it is likely that other observations will be made looking horizontally at the more vertically-oriented facets of rock targets, to avoid spectral contamination from dust mantles. On rover missions, the Mini-TES may also be pointed horizontally at rocks several meters away, to determine if they are worthy of approaching for in situ observations and possible sample cacheing. While these observations will undoubtedly prove useful, there are important, and perhaps unappreciated, differences between horizontal-viewing, surface-based spectroscopy and the more traditional nadir-viewing, orbit or aircraft-based observations. Plans also exist to step the Mini-TES in a rastering motion to build hyperspectral scenes. Horizontal viewing hyperspectral cubes also possess unique qualities that call for innovative analysis techniques. The effect of viewing geometry: In thermal emission spectroscopy, regardless of whether an instrument is looking down on or horizontally at a target, the same basic equation governs the radiance reaching the sensor .
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Workshop on Mars 2001: Integrated Science in Preparation for Sample Return and Human Exploration; 77-79; LPI-Contrib-991
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-04-06
    Description: Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Washington Rept. of Planetary Geology Program, 1983; p 250-252
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