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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper presents a climatological application of the combination of remote sensing data and multivariate analysis. It proposes a methodology to perform an agroclimatic characterization of a region with the aim of determining homogeneous areas. This methodology is applied to Catalonia, in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea, in the Iberian Peninsula. To this end various multivariate analysis techniques have been applied to data from 107 meteorological stations and to digitally processed AVHRR images from a NOAA satellite (ground surface temperature and thermal inertia). Values of emissivity and albedo for different land uses and phenomenological states, in addition to the most suitable algorithms for the soil surface temperature, have been obtained. Combining this information with orographic characteristics and the Papadakis classification, a final map is obtained with 68 homogeneous zones for the period between April and October, the most important for the agriculture of the area studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Flood ; rainfall ; synoptic analysis ; mesoscale analysis ; Catalonia ; Spain ; Iberian Peninsula
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The main meteorological features of catastrophic rainfall events in Catalonia are described. Data come from several sources listed in the text. Surface and upper air synoptic and some subsynoptic conditions under which these events occur are described. Two kinds of events are identified, depending on the amount of forced lift required to release potential instability: Type A events, which take place on the coastal area when the forcing due to littoral and prelittoral hills is enough, and type B events require a large forced lift and occur near the Pyrenees. Local topographical and mesoscale meteorological conditions turn out to have a relevant role in connection with such events.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0956
    Keywords: Floods ; Heavy rain ; Catalonia ; Synoptic forcings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A diagnostic study of the synoptic aspects of two cases of heavy rain producing floods in Catalonia (northeast corner of the Iberian peninsula) is presented. The diagnosis consists in the determination of the area where large scale circulation induces favorable conditions for development of thunderstorms. We identify these conditions as upward quasi-geostrophic forcing, convergence of water vapor at low levels and convective instability in the lower troposphere. A composite chart showing where the three synoptic mechanisms overlap determines the area. Local studies of instability are carried out from upper air data given by the radiosonde ascents of Palma de Mallorca, looking for both the Convective Available Potential Energy and Bulk Richardson number and its temporal evolution during the events.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meccanica 31 (1996), S. 397-406 
    ISSN: 1572-9648
    Keywords: Rainfall ; Instability ; Objective diagnosis ; Mediterrnean Area ; Hydrometeorology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario Sono stati studiati i fattori meteorologici e termodinamici associati ad eventi catastrofici di piena nell' Area Mediterranea Occidentale. Prima di tutto, la connessione fra depressioni in alta quota e temporali intensi, usualmente assunta come casuale, è stata esaurientemente investigata. Una volta identificati gli aspetti meteorologici generali, le strutture e le forzanti alla scala sinottica sono studiate usando tecniche oggettive. L'analisi termodinamica ha assunto la forma specifica nello studio della stabilità, della massa d'acqua precipitabile, dell' energia potenziale disponibile alla convenzione, del gradiente verticale di vento e del numero di Richardson. La combinazione dei risultati sinottici e termodinamici mostra una forte forzante quasi-geostrofica per lo spostamento verticale ai bassi livelli mentre la forzante a 500 hPa è debole, alti valori di massa d'acqua precipitabile prodotti da una forte convergenza di vapore d'acqua vicino alla superficie e instabilità convettiva e latente. Le carte composite che delineano l'area coperta da ciascuno dei fattori indicati sembrano essere uno strumento efficace per la delimitazione dell'area dove i meccanismi di concentrazione alla meso-scala diventano efficaci.
    Notes: Abstract Meteorological and thermodynamic factors associated with catastrophic flood events affecting the West Mediterranean Area have been studied. First of all, the usually assumed causal connection between cut-off lows aloft and severe storms has been thoroughly investigated. Once identified the general meteorological features, the synoptic- scale pattern and forcing are studied by using objective techniques. The thermodynamic analysis took specific form in the study of stability, precipitable water mass, convective available potential energy, vertical wind shear and bulk Richardson number. The combination of the synoptic and thermodynamic results show a strong quasi-geostrophic forcing for vertical motion at low levels while only a weak forcing at 500 hPa, high values of precipitable water mass produced by a strong convergence of water vapour near surface and convective and latent instability. Composite charts delineating the area covered by each of the indicated factors seem to be an effective tool for delimiting the are where mesoscale focusing mechanisms become effective.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Eine Anzahl von Tabellen über Niederschlagsraten, die in Barcelona (Spanien) durch einen Jardí Niederschlagsmesser über eine Zeitspanne von 20 Jahren aufgezeichnet wurden, werden bearbeitet. Die Andauer von gewissen festliegenden Niederschlagsraten wurde berechnet und in Prozenten von der gesamten 20jährigen Zeitspanne ausgedrückt. Die durchschnittliche Dauer im schlechtesten Monat, sowie der absolut schlechteste Monat werden definiert und berechnet. Die Ergebnisse stimmen im allgemeinen mit solchen anderer südeuropäischer Gebiete überein; sie werden mit schon veröffentlichten Ergebnissen aus Kew verglichen. Häufigkeits- als auch Verteilungsraten sowie die Eintrittszeit der Ereignisse werden angegeben. Die Niederschlagsmengen, die jeweils zu verschiedenen Niederschlagsraten gehören, wurden analysiert, um das Verhältnis des konvektiven zum gesamten Niederschlag zu ermitteln. Ein Vergleich dieses Verhältnisses mit den Ergebnissen anderer Autoren sind noch nicht abgeschlossen.
    Notes: Summary A series of charts of rainfall rates recorded by means of a Jardí pluviograph in Barcelona, Spain, and covering a period of 20 years have been digitised. The time intervals of exceedance of certain pre-set rainfall rate thresholds were computed and expressed in percentages of the whole 20-year period. The average worst month period and the absolute worst month were defined and computed. Results are found to agree well with those obtained elsewhere in Southern Europe; they are also compared with some published results for Kew. Frequency-distribution of rates as well as time of occurrence are presented. Rainfall amounts pertaining to several rainfall rate categories have been analysed in order to obtain the ratio of convective to total rainfall amount. Comparison of this ratio with results of some other authors is inconclusive.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary  The present paper investigates the potential of combining image processing techniques based on cluster analysis of infrared (IR) Meteosat images with dynamic meteorological theory on synoptic systems. From this last point of view the highest probability of deep convective development is favoured where the overlapping of four mechanisms acting at synoptic scale is produced: upward quasi-geostrophic forcing, convergence of water vapour at low levels, convective instability in the lower troposphere and great convective available potential energy. Cloud tracking is performed over sequences of Meteosat IR images by using a shape parameterisation approach after appropriate filtering for non-significant clouds and automated identification of convective systems. The integrated methodology is applied to the case study of the heavy rainfall event which produced floods in the South of France and the North of Italy on September 27–28th, 1992. The analysis focuses on the monitoring and explanation of the zones most affected by heavy rainfall with the aim of investigating possible improvements of the predictive potential of cloud tracking and allowing identification of the areas which most lend themselves to flash floods for use in operational flood forecasting applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 42 (1990), S. 171-177 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary Cold pools over Europe and the surrounding seas during the years 1974 to 1983 are briefly analysed regarding their seasonal and geographical distribution as well as their motion, size and other features. Certain criteria are established to identify cold pools. 486 of these have been observed, with a modal life of two days and mean diameters ranging from 5 to 10 degrees of latitude. Usually they reach the 300-hPa level and about half of them appear to form behind a cold front. Preferred areas for cold pool genesis are generally associated with either high ground or warm seas. These areas shift from the eastern Atlantic in spring to a poorly defined distribution in summer, whereas in autumn and winter preferred areas shift southwards to the Mediterranean Sea. The pools generylly follow complicated and irregular tracks. Path lengths are variable and depend on the place of birth and the time of the year.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-10-21
    Print ISSN: 1436-3798
    Electronic ISSN: 1436-378X
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1994-03-01
    Print ISSN: 0921-030X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0840
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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