Background: In our previous study, we had assessed in the Chinese Han population the association of KCNB1 rs1051295 with metabolic traits indicating metabolic syndrome, and showed that KCNB1 rs1051295 genotype TT was associated with increase of waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG) and decreased insulin sensitivity at basal condition. Here, we aimed at detecting whether there were associations between other tag SNPs of KCNB1 and favorable or unfavorable metabolic traits. Methods: We conducted a case–control design of population-based cross-sectional study to investigate the association between each of the 22 candidates tag SNPs of KCNB1 and metabolic traits in a population of 733 Chinese Han individuals. The association was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis or unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: We found that among the 22 selected tag SNPs, four were associated with an increase (rs3331, rs16994565) or decrease (rs237460, rs802950) in serum cholesterol levels; two of these (rs237460, rs802590) further associated or were associated with reduced serum LDL-cholesterol. Two novel tag SNPs (rs926672, rs1051295) were associated with increased serum TG levels. We also showed that KCNB1 rs926672 associated with insulin resistance by a case–control study, and two tag SNPs (rs2057077and rs4810952) of KCNB1 were associated with the measure of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a cross-section study. Conclusion: These results indicate that KCNB1 is likely associated with metabolic traits that may either predispose or protect from progression to metabolic syndrome. This study provides initial evidence that the gene variants of KCNB1, encoding Kv2.1 channel, is associated with perturbation of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in Chinese Han population.