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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-07
    Description: The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM) satellite mission is designed to explore ocean surface current and waves. This includes tropical currents, notably the unknown patterns of divergence and their impact on the ocean heat budget near the Equator, monitoring of the emerging Arctic up to 82.5$(\circ)$N. SKIM will also make unprecedented direct measurements of strong currents, from boundary currents to the Antarctic circumpolar current, and their interaction with ocean waves with expected impacts on air-sea fluxes and extreme waves. For the first time, SKIM will directly measure the ocean surface current vector from space. The main instrument on SKIM is a Ka-band conically scanning, multi-beam Doppler radar altimeter/wave scatterometer that includes a state-of-the-art nadir beam comparable to the Poseidon-4 instrument on Sentinel 6. The well proven Doppler pulse-pair technique will give a surface drift velocity representative of the top two meters of the ocean, after subtracting a large wave-induced contribution. Horizontal velocity components will be obtained with an accuracy better than 7 cm/s for horizontal wavelengths larger than 80~km and time resolutions larger than 15 days, with a mean revisit time of 4 days for of 99\% of the global oceans. This will provide unique and innovative measurements that will further our understanding of the transports in the upper ocean layer, permanently distributing heat, carbon, plankton, and plastics. SKIM will also benefit from co-located measurements of water vapor, rain rate, sea ice concentration, and wind vectors provided by the European operational satellite MetOp-SG(B), allowing many joint analyses. SKIM is one of the two candidate satellite missions under development for ESA Earth Explorer 9. The other candidate is the Far infrared Radiation Understanding and Monitoring (FORUM). The final selection will be announced by September 2019, for a launch in the coming decade.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-09-25
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Sea ice volume export through the Fram Strait represents an important freshwater input to the North Atlantic, which could in turn modulate the intensity of the thermoha-line circulation. It also contributes significantly to variations in Arctic ice mass balance. We present the first estimates of winter sea ice volume export through the Fram Strait using CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness retrievals and three different ice drift products for the years 2010 to 2017. The monthly export varies between − 21 and −540 km 3. We find that ice drift variability is the main driver of annual and interannual ice volume export variability and that the interannual variations in the ice drift are driven by large-scale variability in the atmospheric circulation captured by the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation indices. On shorter timescale, however, the seasonal cycle is also driven by the mean thickness of exported sea ice, typically peaking in March. Considering Arctic winter multi-year ice volume changes, 54 % of their variability can be explained by the variations in ice volume export through the Fram Strait.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: In this paper we compare the simulated Arctic Ocean in 15 global ocean–sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II). Most of these models are the ocean and sea-ice components of the coupled climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments. We mainly focus on the hydrography of the Arctic interior, the state of Atlantic Water layer and heat and volume transports at the gateways of the Davis Strait, the Bering Strait, the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea Opening. We found that there is a large spread in temperature in the Arctic Ocean between the models, and generally large differences compared to the observed temperature at intermediate depths. Warm bias models have a strong temperature anomaly of inflow of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. Another process that is not represented accurately in the CORE-II models is the formation of cold and dense water, originating on the eastern shelves. In the cold bias models, excessive cold water forms in the Barents Sea and spreads into the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Through. There is a large spread in the simulated mean heat and volume transports through the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea Opening. The models agree more on the decadal variability, to a large degree dictated by the common atmospheric forcing. We conclude that the CORE-II model study helps us to understand the crucial biases in the Arctic Ocean. The current coarse resolution state-of-the-art ocean models need to be improved in accurate representation of the Atlantic Water inflow into the Arctic and density currents coming from the shelves.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The impact of tides on the simulated landfast ice cover is investigated. Pan-Arctic simulations are conducted with an ice-ocean (CICE-NEMO) model with a modified rheology and a grounding scheme. The reference experiment (without tides) indicates there is an overestimation of the extent of landfast ice in regions of strong tides such as the Gulf of Boothia, Prince Regent Inlet, and Lancaster Sound. The addition of tides in the simulation clearly leads to a decrease of the extent of landfast ice in some tidally active regions. This numerical experiment with tides is more in line with observations of landfast ice in all the regions studied. Thermodynamics and changes in grounding cannot explain the lower landfast ice area when tidal forcing is included. We rather demonstrate that this decrease in the landfast ice extent is dynamically driven by the increase of the ocean-ice stress due to the tides.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Sea ice volume export is affecting the Arctic ice mass balance, and certainly the multiyear ice volume variability. Climate relevance is also given by the significant fresh water input into the North Atlantic, affecting the thermohaline circulation. The Fram Strait represents the main sea ice export gate in the Arctic. Here, we present the first estimates of winter sea ice volume export through the Fram Strait using CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness retrievals and three different drift products for the years 2010 to 2017. The export rates vary between 20 and 550 km3/month. We find that sea ice drift is the main driver of seasonal and interannual ice volume export variability. Moreover, 79% of the interannual variability can be explained by the relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO). The seasonal trend, however, is driven by the mean ice thickness, associated with the thermodynamic ice growth, which is typically peaking in March. Considering Arctic winter multiyear ice volume changes, 50% of the seasonal variability can be explained by the ice volume export through the Fram Strait.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119 (2014): 496-508, doi:10.1002/2013JC009346.
    Description: Observational studies have shown that an unprecedented warm anomaly has recently affected the temperature of the Atlantic Water (AW) layer lying at intermediate depth in the Arctic Ocean. Using observations from four profiling moorings, deployed in the interior of the Canada Basin between 2003 and 2011, the upward diffusive vertical heat flux from this layer is quantified. Vertical diffusivity is first estimated from a fine-scale parameterization method based on CTD and velocity profiles. Resulting diffusive vertical heat fluxes from the AW are in the range 0.1–0.2 W m−2 on average. Although large over the period considered, the variations of the AW temperature maximum yields small variations for the temperature gradient and thus the vertical diffusive heat flux. In most areas, variations in upward diffusive vertical heat flux from the AW have only a limited effect on temperature variations of the overlying layer. However, the presence of eddies might be an effective mechanism to enhance vertical heat transfer, although the small number of eddies sampled by the moorings suggest that this mechanism remains limited and intermittent in space and time. Finally, our results suggest that computing diffusive vertical heat flux with a constant vertical diffusivity of ∼2 × 10−6 m2 s−1 provides a reasonable estimate of the upward diffusive heat transfer from the AW layer, although this approximation breaks down in the presence of eddies.
    Description: C. Lique acknowledge support from JISAO and the Program on Climate Change of the University of Washington. J. Guthrie and J. Morison are supported by National Science Foundation grants ARC-0909408 and ARC-0856330. M. Steele is supported by the Office of Naval Researches Arctic and Global Prediction Program, by NSFs Division of Polar Programs, and by NASAs Cryosphere and Physical Oceanography programs. Support for the BGOS program and R. Krishfield was provided by the National Science Foundation (under grants ARC-0806115, ARC-0631951, ARC-0806306, and ARC-0856531) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution internal funding. For A. Proshutinsky, this research is supported by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, awards ARC-1203720 and ARC-0856531.
    Description: 2014-07-22
    Keywords: Arctic Ocean ; Atlantic water ; Mixing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-02
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 121 (2016): 675-717, doi:10.1002/2015JG003140.
    Description: The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters to the Arctic Ocean by river inflow, net precipitation, distillation during the freeze/thaw cycle, and Pacific Ocean inflows; (2) the disposition (e.g., sources, pathways, and storage) of freshwater components within the Arctic Ocean; and (3) the release and export of freshwater components into the bordering convective domains of the North Atlantic. We then examine physical, chemical, or biological processes which are influenced or constrained by the local quantities and geochemical qualities of freshwater; these include stratification and vertical mixing, ocean heat flux, nutrient supply, primary production, ocean acidification, and biogeochemical cycling. Internal to the Arctic the joint effects of sea ice decline and hydrological cycle intensification have strengthened coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere (e.g., wind and ice drift stresses, solar radiation, and heat and moisture exchange), the bordering drainage basins (e.g., river discharge, sediment transport, and erosion), and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., Arctic greening, dissolved and particulate carbon loading, and altered phenology of biotic components). External to the Arctic freshwater export acts as both a constraint to and a necessary ingredient for deep convection in the bordering subarctic gyres and thus affects the global thermohaline circulation. Geochemical fingerprints attained within the Arctic Ocean are likewise exported into the neighboring subarctic systems and beyond. Finally, we discuss observed and modeled functions and changes in this system on seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales and discuss mechanisms that link the marine system to atmospheric, terrestrial, and cryospheric systems.
    Description: World Climate Research Program-Climate and Cryosphere (WCRP-CliC); Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) International Arctic Science Committee (IASC); Norwegian Ministries of Environment and of Foreign Affairs; Swedish Secretariat for Environmental Earth System Sciences (SSEESS); Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; NSF Grant Numbers: OCE 1130008, 1249133, AON-1203473, AON-1338948, OCE 1434041; Polar Research Programme of the Norwegian Research Council Grant Number: 226415
    Keywords: Arctic ; Oceans ; Circulation ; Freshwater ; Carbon cycle ; Acidification
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 121 (2018): 49-75, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.11.008.
    Description: Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades, a variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of Lagrangian analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolved physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. The overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in Lagrangian ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.
    Description: EvS has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 715386). This research for PJW was supported as part of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Funding for HFD was provided by Grant No. DE-SC0012457 from the US Department of Energy. PB acknowledges support for this work from NERC grant NE/R011567/1. SFG is supported by NERC National Capability funding through the Extended Ellett Line Programme.
    Keywords: Ocean circulation ; Lagrangian analysis ; Connectivity ; Particle tracking ; Future modelling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Highlights: • We compare the simulated Arctic Ocean in 15 global ocean–sea ice models. • There is a large spread in temperature bias in the Arctic Ocean between the models. • Warm bias models have a strong temperature anomaly of inflow of Atlantic Water. • Dense outflows formed on Arctic shelves are not captured accurately in the models. In this paper we compare the simulated Arctic Ocean in 15 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II). Most of these models are the ocean and sea-ice components of the coupled climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments. We mainly focus on the hydrography of the Arctic interior, the state of Atlantic Water layer and heat and volume transports at the gateways of the Davis Strait, the Bering Strait, the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea Opening. We found that there is a large spread in temperature in the Arctic Ocean between the models, and generally large differences compared to the observed temperature at intermediate depths. Warm bias models have a strong temperature anomaly of inflow of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. Another process that is not represented accurately in the CORE-II models is the formation of cold and dense water, originating on the eastern shelves. In the cold bias models, excessive cold water forms in the Barents Sea and spreads into the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Through. There is a large spread in the simulated mean heat and volume transports through the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea Opening. The models agree more on the decadal variability, to a large degree dictated by the common atmospheric forcing. We conclude that the CORE-II model study helps us to understand the crucial biases in the Arctic Ocean. The current coarse resolution state-of-the-art ocean models need to be improved in accurate representation of the Atlantic Water inflow into the Arctic and density currents coming from the shelves.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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