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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-21
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 380 (1996), S. 234-237 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The oxygen isotope (c518O) data presented here are from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 769 and 768 in the Sulu Sea (Table 1, and Figs 1, 2 and 3). The 518O of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber was measured at 400-yr resolution to develop a detailed palaeoclimate history of ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twentyone laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can be significant, and in the extreme case could result in a range in SST estimates of 7°C. However, most of the data fall within a narrower range and the Porites coral reference material JCp- 1 is now characterized well enough to have a certified Sr/Ca value of 8.838 mmol/mol with an expanded uncertainty of 0.089 mmol/mol following International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG) guidelines. This uncertainty, at the 95% confidence level, equates to 1.5°C for SST estimates using Porites, so is approaching fitness for purpose. The comparable median within laboratory error is 〈0.5°C. This difference in uncertainties illustrates the interlaboratory bias component that should be reduced through the use of reference materials like the JCp-1. There are many potential sources contributing to biases in comparative methods but traces of Sr in Ca standards and uncertainties in reference solution composition can account for half of the combined uncertainty. Consensus values that fulfil the requirements to be certified values were also obtained for Mg/Ca in JCp-1 and for Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the JCt-1 giant clam reference material. Reference values with variable fitness for purpose have also been obtained for Li/Ca, B/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca in both reference materials. In future, studies reporting coral element/Ca data should also report the average value obtained for a reference material such as the JCp-1.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-06
    Description: Upper Pleistocene sediments on the continental slope off Northern California contain alternations of varves and bioturbation produced by fluctuations in intensity of the coastal upwelling system. Stable isotopic analyses of benthic Foraminifera across a particularly well developed varve/bioturbation sequence deposited ~26,000 years ago reveal rapid shifts of ~0.25‰ in δ18O and ~0.4‰ in δ13C. The δ18O shift occurs within a varved section. Based on varve counts, the isotopic change occurred in less than 100 years. Timing and magnitude of the shift coincide with similar shifts observed in almost all other high-resolution δ18O records that have been interpreted as primarily representing global in-volume fluctuations.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-08
    Description: EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Clipperton Atoll (10°18'N, 109°13'W), lies within the eastern Pacific elongated warm water pool centered at 10°N and is situated at the boundary of the North Equatorial Counter-Current (NECC) and westward-flowing eddy currents moving away from Central America. ... Fifteen coral cores were collected from massive heads of Porites lobata in April 1994 for the purpose of reconstructing oceanographic and climatic conditions at this open ocean site in the eastern Pacific.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-10
    Description: EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): A high resolution, AMS carbon-14-dated sediment record from the Sulu Sea clearly indicates the Younger Dryas climatic event affected the western equatorial Pacific. Presence of the Younger Dryas in the tropical western Pacific indicates this climatic event is not restricted to the North Atlantic nor to high latitudes, but is global in extent.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 21 (2006): PA1007, doi:10.1029/2005PA001158.
    Description: Core top samples from Atlantic (Little Bahama Banks (LBB)) and Pacific (Hawaii and Indonesia) depth transects have been analyzed in order to assess the influence of bottom water temperature (BWT) and aragonite saturation levels on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the aragonitic benthic foraminifer Hoeglundina elegans. Both the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in H. elegans tests show a general decrease with increasing water depth. Although at each site the decreasing trends are consistent with the in situ temperature profile, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in LBB are substantially higher than in Indonesia and Hawaii at comparable water depths with a greater difference observed with increasing water depth. Because we find no significant difference between results obtained on “live” and “dead” specimens, we propose that these differences are due to primary effects on the metal uptake during test formation. Evaluation of the water column properties at each site suggests that in situ CO3 ion concentrations play an important role in determining the H. elegans Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. The CO3 ion effect is limited, however, only to aragonite saturation levels ([ΔCO3]aragonite) below 15 μmol kg−1. Above this level, temperature exerts a dominant effect. Accordingly, we propose that Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in H. elegans tests can be used to reconstruct thermocline temperatures only in waters oversaturated with respect to the mineral aragonite using the following relationships: Mg/Ca = (0.034 ± 0.002)BWT + (0.96 ± 0.03) and Sr/Ca = (0.060 ± 0.002)BWT + (1.53 ± 0.03) (for [ΔCO3]aragonite 〉 15 μmol kg−1). The standard error associated with these equations is about ±1.1°C. Reconstruction of deeper water temperatures is complicated because in undersaturated waters, changes in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect a combination of changes in [CO3] and BWT. Overall, we find that Sr/Ca, rather than Mg/Ca, in H. elegans may be a more accurate proxy for reconstructing paleotemperatures.
    Description: Yair Rosenthal acknowledges the support of Amtzia Genin and the Hebrew University, Forchheimer Fellowship, during his sabbatical in the Inter-University Institute in Eilat, Israel. This project has been funded by NSF Awards OCE 0220922 to Y.R. and OCE 0220776 to D.W.O. and B.K.L.
    Keywords: Benthic foraminifera ; Paleothermometry ; Magnesium
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 14 (2013): 3730–3750, doi:10.1002/ggge.20230.
    Description: The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twenty-one laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can be significant, and in the extreme case could result in a range in SST estimates of 7°C. However, most of the data fall within a narrower range and the Porites coral reference material JCp-1 is now characterized well enough to have a certified Sr/Ca value of 8.838 mmol/mol with an expanded uncertainty of 0.089 mmol/mol following International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG) guidelines. This uncertainty, at the 95% confidence level, equates to 1.5°C for SST estimates using Porites, so is approaching fitness for purpose. The comparable median within laboratory error is 〈0.5°C. This difference in uncertainties illustrates the interlaboratory bias component that should be reduced through the use of reference materials like the JCp-1. There are many potential sources contributing to biases in comparative methods but traces of Sr in Ca standards and uncertainties in reference solution composition can account for half of the combined uncertainty. Consensus values that fulfil the requirements to be certified values were also obtained for Mg/Ca in JCp-1 and for Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the JCt-1 giant clam reference material. Reference values with variable fitness for purpose have also been obtained for Li/Ca, B/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca in both reference materials. In future, studies reporting coral element/Ca data should also report the average value obtained for a reference material such as the JCp-1.
    Description: E.C.H. (MARUM Fellowship) and T.F. were supported by the DFG-Research Center/Excellence Cluster ‘‘The Ocean in the Earth System,’’ University of Bremen. HVM was supported by an AINSE Research Fellowship.
    Description: 2014-03-23
    Keywords: Coral Sr/Ca ratios
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Nature Communications 5 (2014): 4102, doi:10.1038/ncomms5102.
    Description: Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1–2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.
    Description: Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FE 615/4-1), Australian Research Council (Discovery grant DP1094001), Australia and New Zealand IODP Consortium, Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Natural Environmental Research Council (NE/H014136/1, NE/H014268/1), the Cooperative Research Program of the Center for Advanced Marine Core Research (10B039, 11A013, 11B041), Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India (with partial support from DST & ISRO-GBP) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS NEXT-GR031).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature 460 (2009): 1113-1116, doi:10.1038/nature08233.
    Description: Northern Hemisphere surface temperature reconstructions suggest that the late twentieth century was warmer than any other time during the past 500 years and possibly any time during the past 1,300 years. These temperature reconstructions are based largely on terrestrial records from extra-tropical or highelevation sites; however, global average surface temperature changes closely follow those of the global tropics, which are 75% ocean. In particular, the tropical Indo- Pacific warm pool (IPWP) represents a major heat reservoir that both influences global atmospheric circulation and responds to remote northern latitude forcings. Here we present a decadally resolved continuous sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction from the IPWP that spans the past two millennia and overlaps the instrumental record, enabling both a direct comparison of proxy data to the instrumental record and an evaluation of past changes in the context of twentieth century trends. Our record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia, exhibits trends that are similar to a recent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Reconstructed SST was, however, within error of modern values during the Medieval Warm Period from about AD 1000 to AD 1250, towards the end of the Medieval Warm Period. SSTs during the Little Ice Age (approximately ad 1550–1850) were variable, and 0.5 to 1°C colder than modern values during the coldest intervals. A companion reconstruction of δ18O of sea water—a sea surface salinity and hydrology indicator— indicates a tight coupling with the East Asian monsoon system and remote control of IPWP hydrology on centennial–millennial timescales, rather than a dominant influence from local SST variation.
    Description: This work was financially supported by the US NSF and the Ocean Climate Change Institute of WHOI.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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