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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 300 (1982), S. 48-50 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Two principal types of hydrothermal vents have been discovered and studied to date. At the GSC (048' N, 860.8' W) warm (7-23 C) water flowed from gaps, or 'vents', between basaltic pillows at linear flow rates of the order of cm s"1; similar vents have been found at 21 N on the East Pacific ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 422 (2003), S. 878-881 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge is host to one of the most vigorous hydrothermal areas found on the global mid-ocean-ridge system, with five separate vent fields located within 15 km along the top of the ridge segment. Over the past decade, the largest of these vent ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30° N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - Rates of biological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents have been the subject of considerable research since the initial discovery of vent ecosystems in 1977. Previous studies have suggested that the environmental unpredictability, tran-sient nature and high biological produc-tion of ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] There are numerous oligotrophic sub-alpine lakes surrounding Mt St Helens (Fig. 1), which were dramatically altered by the 18 May 1980 eruption. Some lakes and streams were reshaped, new lakes and numerous hydrothermal seeps emerged. Aquatic environments in the blast zone received massive ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Submarine hydrothermal systems located along tectonic rifts and ridges off the Galapagos Islands and along the East Pacific Rise4'6 and the Gorda Ridge have been studied and sampled since 1977. Two groups of vents have been described: (1) cracks and small fissures which emit warm water (5-22 C) at ...
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Highlights • Seabed rock drills and real-time fluid monitoring for first time in ocean drilling • First time recovery of continuous sequences along oceanic detachment fault zone • Highly heterogeneous rock type and alteration in shallow detachment fault zone • High methane and hydrogen concentrations in Atlantis Massif shallow basement • Oceanic serpentinites potentially provide important niches for microbial life Abstract IODP Expedition 357 used two seabed drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif ocean core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). The goals of this expedition were to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration in one borehole. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock types and alteration associated with changes in bulk rock chemistry that reflect multiple phases of magmatism, fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer within the detachment fault zone. Recovered ultramafic rocks are dominated by pervasively serpentinized harzburgite with intervals of serpentinized dunite and minor pyroxenite veins; gabbroic rocks occur as melt impregnations and veins. Dolerite intrusions and basaltic rocks represent the latest magmatic activity. The proportion of mafic rocks is volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously by drilling the central dome of Atlantis Massif at IODP Site U1309. This suggests a different mode of melt accumulation in the mantle peridotites at the ridge-transform intersection and/or a tectonic transposition of rock types within a complex detachment fault zone. The cores revealed a high degree of serpentinization and metasomatic alteration dominated by talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting. Metasomatism is most prevalent at contacts between ultramafic and mafic domains (gabbroic and/or doleritic intrusions) and points to channeled fluid flow and silica mobility during exhumation along the detachment fault. The presence of the mafic lenses within the serpentinites and their alteration to mechanically weak talc, serpentine and chlorite may also be critical in the development of the detachment fault zone and may aid in continued unroofing of the upper mantle peridotite/gabbro sequences. New technologies were also developed for the seabed drills to enable biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of the environment. An in situ sensor package and water sampling system recorded real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential (Eh), and temperature and during drilling and sampled bottom water after drilling. Systematic excursions in these parameters together with elevated hydrogen and methane concentrations in post-drilling fluids provide evidence for active serpentinization at all sites. In addition, chemical tracers were delivered into the drilling fluids for contamination testing, and a borehole plug system was successfully deployed at some sites for future fluid sampling. A major achievement of IODP Expedition 357 was to obtain microbiological samples along a west–east profile, which will provide a better understanding of how microbial communities evolve as ultramafic and mafic rocks are altered and emplaced on the seafloor. Strict sampling handling protocols allowed for very low limits of microbial cell detection, and our results show that the Atlantis Massif subsurface contains a relatively low density of microbial life.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72 (2008): 2005-2023, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.01.025.
    Description: A unique dataset from paired low- and high-temperature vents at 9°50’N East Pacific Rise provides insight into the microbiological activity in low-temperature diffuse fluids. The stable carbon isotopic composition of CH4 and CO2 in 9°50’N hydrothermal fluids indicates microbial methane production, perhaps coupled with microbial methane consumption. Diffuse fluids are depleted in 13C by ~10‰ in values of δ13C of CH4, and by ~0.55‰ in values of δ13C of CO2, relative to the values of the high-temperature source fluid (δ13C of CH4 = -20.1 ± 1.2‰, δ13C of CO2 = -4.08 ± 0.15‰). Mixing of seawater or thermogenic sources cannot account for the depletions in 13C of both CH4 and CO2 at diffuse vents relative to adjacent high-temperature vents. The substrate utilization and 13C fractionation associated with the microbiological processes of methanogenesis and methane oxidation can explain observed steady-state CH4 and CO2 concentrations and carbon isotopic compositions. A mass-isotope numerical box-model of these paired vent systems is consistent with the hypothesis that microbial methane cycling is active at diffuse vents at 9°50’N. The detectable 13C modification of fluid geochemistry by microbial metabolisms may provide a useful tool for detecting active methanogenesis.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants from the division of Ocean Science’s MG&G and RIDGE programs.
    Keywords: Methane ; Carbon dioxide ; Diffuse fluid ; Hydrothermal vents ; Methanogenesis ; Methane oxidation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15 (2014): 4093–4115, doi:10.1002/2014GC005387.
    Description: We present multiple lines of evidence for years to decade-long changes in the location and character of volcanic activity at West Mata seamount in the NE Lau basin over a 16 year period, and a hiatus in summit eruptions from early 2011 to at least September 2012. Boninite lava and pyroclasts were observed erupting from its summit in 2009, and hydroacoustic data from a succession of hydrophones moored nearby show near-continuous eruptive activity from January 2009 to early 2011. Successive differencing of seven multibeam bathymetric surveys of the volcano made in the 1996–2012 period reveals a pattern of extended constructional volcanism on the summit and northwest flank punctuated by eruptions along the volcano's WSW rift zone (WSWRZ). Away from the summit, the volumetrically largest eruption during the observational period occurred between May 2010 and November 2011 at ∼2920 m depth near the base of the WSWRZ. The (nearly) equally long ENE rift zone did not experience any volcanic activity during the 1996–2012 period. The cessation of summit volcanism recorded on the moored hydrophone was accompanied or followed by the formation of a small summit crater and a landslide on the eastern flank. Water column sensors, analysis of gas samples in the overlying hydrothermal plume and dives with a remotely operated vehicle in September 2012 confirmed that the summit eruption had ceased. Based on the historical eruption rates calculated using the bathymetric differencing technique, the volcano could be as young as several thousand years.
    Description: Support for R.W.E. during this study was by internal NOAA funding to the NOAA Vents Program (now Earth-Ocean Interactions Program). The NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs played a major role in the planning and justification for the 2009 rapid response proposal that funded the May 2009 expedition. MBARI provided support and outstanding postprocessing of the multibeam bathymetry from the D. Allan B. AUV multibeam sonar used in this study. NSF also provided major funding for the 2009 expedition (OCE930025 and OCE-0934660 to JAR) and for the 210Po-210Pb radiometric dating (OCE-0929881 and for the 210Po-210Pb radiometric dating (OCE-0929881 to KHR)). The NOAA Office of Exploration and Research provided major funding for the 2009 and 2012 field programs.
    Description: 2015-04-30
    Keywords: Seamount ; Lau ; Volcano ; Eruption ; Submarine ; Multibeam
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-07-18
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18 (2017): 75–92, doi:10.1002/2016GC006537.
    Description: Tidal oscillations of venting temperature and chlorinity have been observed in the long-term time series data recorded by the Benthic and Resistivity Sensors (BARS) at the Grotto mound on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. In this study, we use a one-dimensional two-layer poroelastic model to conduct a preliminary investigation of three hypothetical scenarios in which seafloor tidal loading can modulate the venting temperature and chlorinity at Grotto through the mechanisms of subsurface tidal mixing and/or subsurface tidal pumping. For the first scenario, our results demonstrate that it is unlikely for subsurface tidal mixing to cause coupled tidal oscillations in venting temperature and chlorinity of the observed amplitudes. For the second scenario, the model results suggest that it is plausible that the tidal oscillations in venting temperature and chlorinity are decoupled with the former caused by subsurface tidal pumping and the latter caused by subsurface tidal mixing, although the mixing depth is not well constrained. For the third scenario, our results suggest that it is plausible for subsurface tidal pumping to cause coupled tidal oscillations in venting temperature and chlorinity. In this case, the observed tidal phase lag between venting temperature and chlorinity is close to the poroelastic model prediction if brine storage occurs throughout the upflow zone under the premise that layers 2A and 2B have similar crustal permeabilities. However, the predicted phase lag is poorly constrained if brine storage is limited to layer 2B as would be expected when its crustal permeability is much smaller than that of layer 2A.
    Description: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; NOAA; National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: 9820105 , 0120392 , 0701196 , 0751868 , 0819004
    Description: 2017-07-18
    Keywords: Hydrothermal vent ; Temperature ; Chlorinity ; Brine ; Tide ; Poroelastic model
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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