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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: Sigmodon hispidushabitat mosaic ; sex-age cohorts ; survivorship ; density decline ; landscape ; population dynamics ; electromorphs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study describes the demographic features of a population of Sigmodon hispidus utilizing the habitat mosaic provided by a Carolina Bay on the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 71 cotton rats were captured 160 times on a 4 ha grid during a winter decline from 25/ha to less that 1/ha. Body weights of adults declined until early February and then increased; those of subadults grew very slowly until February followed by a spurt in growth. Weight gain did not differ between survivors and non-survivors for males, but female survivors gained 1.5 g per week more than non-survivors. Female subadults exhibited higher mortality early in the decline and males later. Adult females were randomly distributed across 8 microhabitats, whereas adult males were almost exclusively confined to heavy Rubus cover. Subadult males used wet sites more than any other cohort; subadult females were widely distributed using drier sites most frequently. By the end of the decline, all survivors were localized in Rubus-dominated patches. No statistically significant changes in electromorph genotypes or allele frequencies were detected, but survivors had a higher frequency of the F-allele at the adenylate kinase locus than did non-survivors (42.3% vs. 16.7%). Our findings affirm the importance of a landscape perspective in understanding the population dynamics of cotton rats, and show how a habitat mosaic influences survival differentially among sex-age cohorts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Dispersal ; Territories ; Social behavior ; Philopatry ; Microtus californicus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We intensively monitored space use and movement in Microtus californicus over a 2-year period that included 1 year of high density (maximum 618/ha) and one of low (minimum 5/ha); historically this population has exhibited cycles of 2 or 4 years. Adults of both sexes dispersed at the start of the breeding season, culminating in the establishment of intrasexually exclusive territories. In females, these territories persisted throughout life, except that many young females recruiting during the breeding season established contiguous, overlapping, or adjacent home ranges with their mothers. This female philopatry explains the conclusion of previous workers that females of this species are non-territorial. In the dry (non-breeding) season, females had smaller ranges that often overlapped and were clustered. Adult males moved breeding territories at a modal interval of 6 weeks; this is consistent with their avoidance of inbreeding with philopatric daughters. Ranges overlapped 1–4 adult females at any one time, and a cohort of 7 long-lived males overlapped an average of 16.4 females during their tenure on the grid. The period of maximum overlap with adult females varied among individual males, and did not correlate with the time of maximum body weight. Ranges of males in the dry season overlapped extensively, with persistent associations among some individuals. In the lowdensity year, ranges of some adults failed to overlap intersexually. Juvenile males dispersed gradually between 3 and 13 weeks of age (half before 9 weeks), with some leaving after reaching sexual maturity; a few remained philopatric. Of juvenile females, 47% remained philopatric with the rest disappearing before 9 weeks of age. New understanding of vole social behavior, dispersal, and space use is achieved by focusing on the seasonal dynamics of spatial relationships among individuals with respect to age, sex, and relatedness.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1987-07-17
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1983-03-18
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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