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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Rignot, Eric; Bamber, Jonathan L; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Davis, Curt; Li, Yonghong; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van Meijgaard, Erik (2008): Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience, 1(2), 106-110, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo102
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Climate warming may increase snowfall in the continent's interior, but enhance glacier discharge at the coast where warmer air and ocean temperatures erode the buttressing ice shelves. Here, we use satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar observations from 1992 to 2006 covering 85% of Antarctica's coastline to estimate the total mass flux into the ocean. We compare the mass fluxes from large drainage basin units with interior snow accumulation calculated from a regional atmospheric climate model for 1980 to 2004. In East Antarctica, small glacier losses in Wilkes Land and glacier gains at the mouths of the Filchner and Ross ice shelves combine to a near-zero loss of 4 ± 61 Gt/yr. In West Antarctica, widespread losses along the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas increased the ice sheet loss by 59% in 10 years to reach 132 ± 60 Gt/yr in 2006. In the Peninsula, losses increased by 140% to reach 60 ± 46 Gt/yr in 2006. Losses are concentrated along narrow channels occupied by outlet glaciers and are caused by ongoing and past glacier acceleration. Changes in glacier flow therefore have a significant, if not dominant impact on ice sheet mass balance.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Arising from: Bai, Y., Han, X., Wu, J., Chen, Z. & Li, L. 〈weblink url="http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7005/full/nature02850.html"〉Nature, 431, 181–184 (2004); see also communication from Guo; Bai, Y., Han, X., Wu, J., Chen, Z. & Li, L. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 434 (2005), S. 821-821 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Sir The Commentary article “Lessons from the past” by Z. Dong and colleagues (Nature 433, 573–574; 2005), on China's public-health system, has touched upon an urgent issue that may influence the course ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Description: Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Climate warming may increase snowfall in the continent’s interior1,2,3, but enhance glacier discharge at the coast where warmer air and ocean temperatures erode the buttressing ice shelves4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Here, we use satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar observations from 1992 to 2006 covering 85% of Antarctica’s coastline to estimate the total mass flux into the ocean. We compare the mass fluxes from large drainage basin units with interior snow accumulation calculated from a regional atmospheric climate model for 1980 to 2004. In East Antarctica, small glacier losses in Wilkes Land and glacier gains at the mouths of the Filchner and Ross ice shelves combine to a near-zero loss of 4±61 Gt yr−1. In West Antarctica, widespread losses along the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas increased the ice sheet loss by 59% in 10 years to reach 132±60 Gt yr−1 in 2006. In the Peninsula, losses increased by 140% to reach 60±46 Gt yr−1 in 2006. Losses are concentrated along narrow channels occupied by outlet glaciers and are caused by ongoing and past glacier acceleration. Changes in glacier flow therefore have a significant, if not dominant impact on ice sheet mass balance.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: The VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument onboard the NOAA-20 satellite (launched on November 18, 2017) started to collect Earth-view data after its nadir door opened on December 13, 2017. Seven of the VIIRS bands, I4-5 and M12-16 are thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering a spectral range from 3.6 to 12.5 meters. They began collecting valid data after the cold focal plane assembly (CFPA) cooled down to its nominal operating temperature on January 6, 2018. This paper will present the performance of each TEB, including calibration coefficients, noise equivalent differential temperature (NEdT), on-orbit calibration coefficient estimates from scheduled onboard blackbody warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) data, as well as related telemetry temperatures. Several methods are tested and compared in the WUCD data analysis for estimating the calibration coefficients. Based on the preliminary results, the NEdT of each band is well below the design specification and very close to that of the VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The detector gains appear stable for bands on the short- and mid-wave infrared CFPA, whereas the detector gains have larger than expected degradation for bands on the long-wave infrared CFPA during the early mission. All TEB-related telemetry temperatures are stable. The on-orbit performance of NOAA-20 VIIRS TEB is compared with VIIRS onboard the SNPP.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN64686 , SPIE Asia-Pacific Remote Sensing; Sep 24, 2018 - Sep 26, 2018; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Aqua MODIS is the second MODIS instrument of NASA's Earth Observation System and has operated for over sixteen years since its launch in 2002. MODIS has sixteen thermal emissive bands (TEBs) located on two separate cold focal plane assemblies (CFPA). The TEBs are calibrated every scan using observations of an onboard blackbody (BB) and a space view port. Low saturation temperatures (Tsat) of Aqua MODIS bands 33, 35, and 36 cause these bands to saturate when the BB temperature is higher than their Tsat values during a BB warm-up cool-down (WUCD) cycle, therefore impacting the ability to perform nominal calibration. In addition, starting from around 2006, the CFPA temperature showed gradual variation from its nominally-controlled operating temperature due to a loss of its radiative cooler margin and the magnitude of its fluctuation reaching a maximum in 2013. The MODIS Characterization Support Team currently uses a correction that is dependent on the CFPA temperature to provide a gain estimate for the saturated scans during the BB WUCD. This gain estimation has been implemented in the Aqua MODIS Collection 6 (C6) and C6.1 L1B products. This paper evaluates the quality of the calibrated radiance of Aqua MODIS bands 33, 35, and 36 using simultaneous nadir observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which is also onboard the Aqua satellite. Our analysis results show that the differences between AIRS and Aqua MODIS can be controlled well within the fluctuation range compared to the periods when the BB signals for these bands are not saturated.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN64687 , SPIE Asia-Pacific conference; Sep 24, 2018 - Sep 27, 2018; Honlulu, HI; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: The first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument has been in operation for more than 6 years on-board the S-NPP satellite and the second instrument, with the same design and performance requirements, was launched in November, 2017 on-board the JPSS-1 satellite (named NOAA-20 after reaching its orbit) and is currently in normal operation conditions. This paper provides a brief description of VIIRS on-orbit calibration and characterization activities and presents performance assessments and comparisons of S-NPP and NOAA-20 VIIRS using data collected from their on-board calibrators (OBC) and regularly scheduled lunar observations. Results show that NOAA-20 VIIRS is performing as well or better than S-NPP VIIRS in all of the key performance metrics. The NOAA-20 reflective solar bands, including the day-night band, have experienced less than 1% change in gain in the first 250 days since launch and did not suffer from the contamination related rapid degradation experienced by S-NPP VIIRS. Some of the NOAA20 thermal emissive bands had larger than expected gain degradation after launch due to ice buildup on the dewar window of the long-wave IR focal plane assembly but a mid-mission outgassing operation was able to restore their gains and maintain stable behavior. Though this study is focused on the sensor's key performance parameters, such as detector responses (gains), signal-to-noise ratios, and noise-equivalent temperature differences, challenges identified and lessons learned through different phases of on-orbit calibration and characterization are also discussed.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN62213 , SPIE Remote Sensing (SPIE Europe); Sep 10, 2018 - Sep 13, 2018; Berlin; Germany
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-10-19
    Description: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated for more than 18 and 16 years, respectively, on-board the NASAs Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Both Terra and Aqua MODIS have significantly contributed to the advance of global Earth remote sensing applications with a broad range of science products that have been continuously produced since the beginning of each mission and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS collects data in 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 m. Its level 1B (L1B) data products, which provide the input for the MODIS high-level science products, include the top of the atmosphere reflectance factors for the RSB, radiances for both the RSB and TEB, and associated uncertainty indices (UI) at a pixel-by-pixel level. This paper provides a brief review of MODIS L1B calibration algorithms, including a number of improvements made in recent years. It presents an update of sensor calibration uncertainty assessments with a focus on several new contributors resulting from on-orbit changes in sensor characteristics, approaches developed to address these changes, and the impact due to on-orbit changes on the L1B data quality. Also discussed are remaining challenges and potential improvements to be made to continuously maintain sensor calibration and data quality, particularly those related to the quality of MODIS L1B uncertainty.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN65828 , Journal of Applied Remote Sensing (e-ISSN 1931-3195); 12; 3; 034001
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major instrument within NASAs Earth Observation System missions, has operated for over 16 and 14 years onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively. Its reflective solar bands (RSB) covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.1 micrometers are primarily calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser(SD), with its on-orbit degradation monitored using the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor. RSB calibrations are supplemented by near-monthly lunar measurements acquired from the instruments space-view port. Nine bands (bands 8-16) in the visible to near infrared spectral range from 0.412 to 0.866 micrometers are primarily used for ocean color observations.During a recent reprocessing of ocean color products, performed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group, detector-to-detector differences of up to 1.5% were observed in bands 13-16 of Terra MODIS. This paper provides an overview of the current approach to characterize the MODIS detector-to-detector differences. An alternative methodology was developed to mitigate the observed impacts for bands 13-16. The results indicated an improvement in the detector residuals and in turn are expected to improve the MODIS ocean color products. This paper also discusses the limitations,subsequent enhancements, and the improvements planned for future MODIS calibration collections.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41672 , Proceedings of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) (ISSN 0277-786X) (e-ISSN 1996-756X); 9972; 99721V |Earth Observing Systems Conference; Aug 06, 2016 - Aug 10, 2016; San Diego, CA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper evaluates the calibration quality during the blackbody (BB) warm-up cool-down cycle for thermal emissive bands onboard Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This evaluation utilizes data from Aqua MODIS Collection 6 Level-1B products and VIIRS Sensor Data Records in 6-min granule format provided by the NASA Land Science Investigator-led Processing System. Nearly simultaneous hyperspectral measurements from the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) are used as references for MODIS and VIIRS, respectively. Each AIRS footprint of 13.5 km is co-located with multiple MODIS pixels while each CrIS field of view of 14 km is co-located with multiple VIIRS pixels. The corresponding AIRS-simulated MODIS and CrIS-simulated VIIRS radiances are derived by convolutions based on sensor-dependent relative spectral response functions. In this paper, the analysis mainly focuses on the bands that are used in sea surface temperature products. The results show that there is virtually no impact for MODIS bands 22 and 23 and bands 31 and 32 for a BB temperature below 290 K; however, when the BB temperature increases above 290 K, the impact is up to 0.3 K for bands 22 and 23 and 0.05 K for bands 31 and 32, respectively. For VIIRS, BB temperature-dependent drifts are observed in M15 and M16, which can reach 0.15 and 0.1 K, respectively, over the operational BB temperature range and the VIIRS brightness temperature range.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN66904 , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892) (e-ISSN 1558-0644); 56; 4; 2377-2386
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